Language is a very important part of human existence—it allows us to communicate with each other. The language areas of the brain are located in the left hemisphere, which is in the left half of the cerebrum. When there is damage, it can result in a speech or communication disorder.
1. Broca's Aphasia
In 1861, Paul Broca observed a patient who could only say one word: “tan.” Examination of the patient's brain revealed that there was damage to the left frontal cortex. The University of Washington states that symptoms of Broca's aphasia include slurred speech, problems forming words, and the inability producing speech; however, a patient with Broca's aphasia can understand language.
2. Wernicke's Aphasia
The University of Washington states that Wernicke's aphasia was discovered by Karl Wernicke in 1876, when he found that his patients were having different language problems than patients diagnosed with Broca's Aphasia. The reason was the location of the brain damage: the posterior part of the temporal lobe. Symptoms include the inability to understand language and nonsensical order of words; the patient, however, can speak clearly.