Sodium intake may be a primary factor in the development of
high blood pressure
(hypertension), which is a major risk factor for
Hypertension (a “systolic” blood pressure above 140 and/or a “diastolic” pressure above 90) will develop in nearly everyone who lives into their 80’s, and in many people it occurs long before this age.
About half of the people with hypertension and 30% of the general public are described as "salt sensitive." This means that their blood pressures are likely to increase when they eat a high-sodium diet, and conversely, their blood pressures may be lowered by limiting dietary sodium.
Salt sensitivity is difficult to accurately diagnose. Therefore, appropriate sodium recommendations are a subject of great debate among nutrition experts. Some believe that all people should limit their sodium intakes (to 2,400 mg/day) to either treat or prevent hypertension, regardless of their present blood pressure level. Others, though, advise that only people with hypertension or those who are believed to be salt sensitive need to limit sodium in their diets.
Nutrition researchers are still trying to tease out the exact role of sodium in hypertension. A major study in this area is DASH—Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. This study found that a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and saturated fat—now called the
—helped lower blood pressure.
The second phase of the study found further reductions in blood pressure when the DASH diet was combined with a sodium intake of no more than 2,400 mg/day.
The combination of DASH diet and a sodium intake of no more than 1,600 mg/day was as effective in controlling blood pressure as medication involving a single antihypertensive drug. For some people with mild hypertension, diet alone may be an effective means of blood pressure control when the diet includes adequate calcium and potassium (DASH) along with sodium restriction.
Sodium is found in many foods. Some are obvious, but others may surprise you.
Major Food Sources
Table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is the major source of dietary sodium; about 1/3 to ½ of the sodium we consume is added during cooking or at the table.
Fast foods and commercially processed foods—canned, frozen, instant—also add a significant amount of sodium to the typical American diet. These include:
Salted snack foods
Sandwich meats, especially smoked meat or fish
Sodium occurs naturally in:
Other sources of sodium in the diet:
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
Sodium nitrate and nitrate
Reading Food Labels
All food products contain a Nutrition Facts label, which states a food's sodium content. The following terms are also used on food packaging:
Food label term
Less than 5 mg/serving
Very low sodium
35 mg or less/serving
145 mg or less/serving
75% reduction in sodium content from original product
Unsalted, no salt added, without added salt
Processed without salt when salt normally would be used in processing
Tips for Lowering Your Sodium Intake
Gradually cut down on the amount of salt you use. Your taste buds will adjust to less salt.
Taste your food before you salt it; it may not need more salt.
Substitute flavorful ingredients for salt in cooking, such as garlic, oregano, lemon or lime juice, or other herbs, spices, and seasonings.
Select fresh or plain frozen vegetables and meats instead of those canned with salt.
Look for low sodium, reduced sodium, or no salt added versions of such foods as:
Dried soup mixes
Condiments (ketchup, soy sauce)
Snack foods (chips, nuts, pretzels)
Butter and margarine
Cook rice, pasta, and hot cereals without salt or with less salt than the package calls for (try 1/8 teaspoon for two servings). Flavored rice, pasta, and cereal mixes generally already contain added salt.
Adjust your recipes to gradually cut down on the amount of salt you use. If some of the ingredients already contain salt, such as canned soup, canned vegetables, or cheese, you do not need to add more salt.
Limit your use of condiments, such as soy sauce, dill pickles, salad dressings, and packaged sauces.
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care
provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a
substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the
advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to
starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a