Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. It helps the body absorb calcium and plays a crucial role in the growth and maintenance of strong, healthy bones. In children, adequate vitamin D is important for the prevention of
. And in adults, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a greater incidence of
. Increased intakes of vitamin D, on the other hand, have been associated with less bone loss in older women. This has led some researchers to believe that vitamin D supplementation may help prevent fractures resulting from
Recent research suggests that vitamin D may play a role in a number of other conditions, as well. More research is needed to confirm the findings, though. For example, vitamin D deficiency has been related to muscle weakness and pain. In one study, patients with low back pain received high doses of vitamin D for three months, which resulted in significant improvement of their symptoms.
Also, there is some research to suggest that this supplement may play a role in cancer prevention. Vitamin D receptors have been found in breast and prostate tissue, implying that such a link does exist. Additionally, there is some evidence hinting that low levels may play a role in the development of
high blood pressure
. There is also preliminary research suggesting that long-term vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of
multiple sclerosis. Recent research also suggests that lower levels of vitamin D are associated with a greater likelihood of developing upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold and flu.
People who are at a high risk for vitamin D deficiencies are the elderly, those who get minimal sun exposure, or those who use sunscreen whenever outside. Also, people with conditions that may impact intestinal absorption, such as
, are at risk.
In addition, infants that are breastfed only may require additional supplementation with vitamin D starting within the first days of life. While the dietary reference intakes for vitamin D remain the same, the American Academy of Pediatrics recently doubled the recommended daily dose of vitamin D for infants, children, and adolescents from 200 to 400 IU per day. Requirements for pregnant women are the same as for healthy adults. Some believe that pregnant mothers should take more vitamin D than recommended. However, since there is an increased risk of vitamin D toxicity with increased intake, such recommendations need to be discussed individually with a doctor.
According to most authorities, the recommended intakes for vitamin D are:
Vitamin D is found in some foods, but the main sources are milk and sunlight. The ultraviolet rays of the sun react with cholesterol present on the skin and create previtamin D3. This compound goes through a series of reactions involving the kidneys and the liver, and the final product is vitamin D.
Most people's bodies can manufacture enough vitamin D with 10 to 15 minutes of sun exposure two to three times per week. However, this synthesis is affected by age, season, latitude, time of day, cloud cover, smog, and skin pigmentation.
Other food sources of vitamin D include:
Vitamin D content
Cod liver oil
Sardines, canned in oil
Milk, vitamin D fortified
Liver, beef, cooked
Tips for Increasing Your Vitamin D Intake
If you take a vitamin supplement, make sure it contains vitamin D.
Eat fish, especially fatty fish such as salmon and mackerel, 2-3 times per week.
Drink vitamin D-fortified milk.
Get sun exposure, but be careful to watch for sunburn. Sunlight is a major cause of
Fifteen summer minutes of sun exposure to face and arms will allow most persons to synthesize adequate vitamin D and minimize the risk of skin damage. In most northern climates, winter sun is too obstructed and low in the sky to allow vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Also, few people go outside without covering much of their body with clothes. In the winter, vitamin D supplements or multiple servings of milk and fatty fish are necessary for good health.
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Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care
provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a
substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the
advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to
starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a