These are the words that appear in bold print in
. You also may hear members of your health team use them.
Don't be afraid to ask your health care staff to explain any terms
you don't understand.
Anticancer drugs or hormones given
after surgery and/or radiation to help prevent the cancer from
Loss of appetite leading to severe weight
Drugs used to control nausea and
Biological therapy (immunotherapy):
stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight
infection and disease. This treatment uses products from the body's
natural defense system to destroy cancer cells.
A measurement of the energy your body gets from
food. Your body needs calories as "fuel" to perform all of its
functions, such as breathing, circulating the blood, and physical
activity. When you are sick, your body may need extra calories to
fight fever or other problems.
The smallest units of tissues that make up any
living thing. All cells have very specialized structures and
functions and are able to reproduce.
The use of drugs to treat cancer.
When the body loses too much water to work
well. Severe diarrhea or vomiting can cause dehydration.
The things you eat and drink, both liquids and
The parts of the body involved with
eating, digesting, and excreting food. It includes the mouth,
esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
Drugs that help the body get rid of water and
The buildup of excess fluid within the tissues,
such as in ankles, legs, arms, abdomen.
The part of plant foods that the body cannot
digest. It helps to move food waste out of the body more quickly.
Fiber is found in fruits, vegetables, dry beans and peas, nuts and
seeds, and breads and cereals. Fiber is not found in animal foods
(meat, milk, eggs).
Things to drink; liquids.
The use of drugs that block hormones in
the treatment of breast, prostate, and other cancers. This therapy
is used to prevent recurrence.
See "biological therapy."
When germs enter the body and produce disease,
the disease is called an infection. Infections can occur in any
part of the body. They cause a fever and other problems, depending
on the site of the infection. When the body's natural defense
system is strong, it can often fight the entering germs and prevent
infection. Cancer treatment can weaken the natural defense system,
but healthy eating can help make it stronger.
Lactose is a sugar found in milk and milk
The inability to easily digest
lactose. This may be inherited, or may occur after some types of
surgery. Surgery-related lactose intolerance may go away over time.
Many stores carry special milk products that do not contain
Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts
to help it function properly and stay strong. Iron, calcium,
potassium, and sodium are minerals.
Chemical compounds (water, protein, fat,
carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals) that make up foods. These
compounds are used in different ways by the body, i.e., to grow,
function and stay alive.
A three-part process that gives the body the
nutrients it needs. First, you eat or drink food. Second, the body
breaks the food down into nutrients. Third, the nutrients travel
through the bloodstream to different parts of the body where they
are used as "fuel" and for many other purposes. To give your body
proper nutrition, you have to eat and drink enough of the foods
that contain key nutrients.
A class of helpful chemical substances
found in plants. Many of these chemicals are thought to reduce your
risk of cancer.
A mineral the body needs for fluid balance and
other essential functions.
One of the three nutrients that supply calories
to the body (the other two are fats and carbohydrates). The protein
we eat becomes a part of our muscle, bones, skin, and blood.
Treatment with high-energy x-rays to
treat diseases such as cancer. External radiation therapy is the
use of a machine to aim high-energy x-rays at the cancer. Internal
radiation therapy is the placement of radioactive material inside
the body as close as possible to the cancer.
A health care professional with
extensive scientific background in food, nutrition, biochemistry,
and physiology. This knowledge is applied to promoting health,
preventing disease, and providing counseling and education.
A mineral required by the body to keep body
fluids in balance. Sodium is found in table salt. Too much sodium
can cause you to retain water.
A diet consisting of bland, lower fat foods
that you soften by cooking, mashing, pureeing or blending.
Groups or layers of cells that perform a specific
Total parenteral nutrition:
When a person receives needed
nutrients through a needle in a vein.
Key nutrients, such as vitamins A, C, and E,
that the body needs in small amounts to grow and stay strong.