A fracture is a break in any bone in the body. Fractures are usually caused by trauma. This may be falls, twists, blows or collisions. There are different kinds of fracture:
- The bone may be fractured but stable (simple fracture)
- Bone fragments may be sticking through the skin (open)
Fractures may also be described as:
- Chip (avulsion fracture)—A small piece of bone is broken away from the main bone.
- Compression—The bone is compressed together (ie, vertebrae).
- Comminuted—The bone is in pieces.
- Greenstick—This is a fracture in which one side of the bone is broken, and the other side is bent but not broken.
- Intra-articular—The joint is affected.
- Transverse—The bone is broken in a horizontal line that is perpendicular to the surface of the bone cortex.
- Oblique—The bone is broken in a line that is less than a 90° angle to the surface of the bone cortex.
- Spiral—The line of the fracture forms a spiral.
- Stress—A thin fracture line occurs due to overuse rather than a single traumatic incident.
The Bones of the Body
Fractures are caused by trauma to the bone. Trauma includes:
The trauma is a physical force applied to the bone that the bone cannot withstand. Stronger bones can withstand more physical force than weaker bones.
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition. Risk factors for a fracture include:
Symptoms of a fracture include:
- Pain, often severe (primary symptom)
- Instability of the area around the break
- Inability to use the limb or affected area normally (there may be full or partial restriction in movement)
- Swelling or bruising caused by the bleeding from the bone and surrounding tissues
- Numbness caused by damage to a nearby nerve (rare)
- Fainting or even shock (rare–only in a severe trauma)
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and how you injured yourself, and examine the injured area.
Tests may include:
- Putting the pieces of bone together (may require anesthesia and/or surgery)
- Keeping the pieces together while the bone heals itself
Devices that can hold a bone in place while it heals include:
- A cast (may be used with or without surgery)
- Metal pins across the bone with a frame holding them outside the bone (requires surgery)
- A metal plate with screws (requires surgery)
- Screws alone (requires surgery)
- A rod down the middle of the bone (requires surgery)
Healing and Rehabilitation
Healing time ranges from three weeks for a simple finger fracture to many months for a complicated fracture of a long bone. All fractures require rehabilitation exercises to regain muscle strength and joint motion.
- Delayed union—It takes longer than usual to heal but does heal.
- Nonunion—The bone does not heal and needs some special treatment.
- Infection—This is more likely to happen after an open fracture or surgery.
- Nerve or artery damage—This usually occurs as result of a severe trauma.
- Compartment syndrome—Severe swelling in the spaces of the limbs that causes damage to body tissues.
- Late arthritis—This may happen if the surface of a joint is badly damaged.
If you are diagnosed with a fracture, follow your doctor's instructions .
You can reduce your chances of getting a fracture by:
- Not putting yourself at risk for an accident or other trauma to the bone
- Eating a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D
- Regularly doing weight-bearing exercise to build and maintain strong bones
- Regularly doing strengthening exercises to build strong muscles and prevent falls
- Patients with osteoporosis may benefit from bisphosphonate medications
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
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*¹1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Loke YK, Singh S, Furberg CD. Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2009;180:32-39. Epub 2008 Dec 10.
Last reviewed November 2008 by
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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