A type of food, usually from plants versus
animals. Carbohydrates include simple carbohydrates (sugar, fruit)
and complex carbohydrates (vegetables, starches). One of three
nutrients that supply calories to the body. (See fat and
A disorder that prevents the body from
converting digested food into the energy needed for daily
One of three nutrients that supply calories to the
body. Included are vegetable oil, lard, margarine, butter,
shortening, mayonnaise, and salad dressing. (See carbohydrates and
A form of diabetes which begins
during pregnancy and usually disappears following delivery.
Glucose tolerance test:
A blood test used to make the
diagnosis of diabetes, including gestational diabetes. After
drinking a liquid containing 100 grams of glucose, blood is drawn
every hour for 3 hours. Two or more abnormally elevated blood sugar
levels indicate gestational diabetes.
Health care providers:
Health care professionals who
specialize in the management of certain conditions. In the case of
gestational diabetes, a registered dietician, a qualified
nutritionist, a diabetes educator, and a neonatologist.
A chemical substance produced within the body
which has "regulatory" effect on the activity of a certain tissue
in the body. E, cortisol, and human placenta lactogen are hormones
produced by the placenta which cause changes in the mother's body
to prepare her for the pregnancy and birth. These hormones also
have a contra-insulin effect.
A condition where the blood sugar is lower
than normal. This is a dangerous condition and should be avoided or
A hormone manufactured by the pancreas. Insulin
helps glucose leave the blood and enter the muscles and other
tissues of the body.
A partial blocking of the effect of
insulin. This interference can be caused by hormones produced by
the placenta or by excessive weight gain.
A break down product of fat that accumulates in
the blood as a result of inadequate insulin or inadequate calorie
Beans, peas and lentils which supply fiber and
nutrients and are high in vegetable protein.
A term meaning "large body." This refers to a
baby that is considered larger than normal. This condition occurs
when the mother's blood sugar levels have been higher than normal
during the pregnancy. This is a preventable complication of
Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and
minerals. These are provided by food and are necessary for growth
and the maintenance of life.
A long gland that lies behind the stomach. The
pancreas manufactures insulin and digestive enzymes.
A special tissue that joins the mother and
fetus. It provides hormones necessary for a successful pregnancy,
and supplies the fetus with water and nutrients (food) from the
A substance found in many parts of the body that
helps the body to resist disease. Protein often, but not always,
comes from animal products. high protein foods include meat,
poultry, fish, eggs, hard cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt and milk.
Non-animal sources of protein are nuts and seeds, peanut butter,
legumes, whole gains and tofu. One of three nutrients that supply
calories to the body. (See carbohydrates and fat.)
Recommended Dietary Allowance:
Recommendations for daily
intake of specific nutrients for groups of healthy individuals.
There is a specific recommendation for pregnant and for lactating
women. These recommendations are set by the Food and Nutrition
Board of the National Research Council of the National Academy of
Self (or home) blood glucose monitoring:
A process by
which blood sugars can be determined at home by pricking the
finger, putting a drop of blood on a chemically treated test strip,
and comparing the color changes to a chart.
A period of 3 months. Pregnancy is divided
into three trimesters. The first trimester is 0-13 weeks gestation.
The second trimester is 14-26 weeks gestation. The third trimester
is 27 weeks gestation until birth