Herbs and Supplements to Avoid During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
• Pregnancy, Safety of Herbs and Supplements in
Virtually no medicinal herb has been established as safe in pregnancy or breast-feeding, and even herbs that might seem safe because of their wide use in cooking could cause problems when they are taken in the form of highly concentrated extracts. For example, based on food use, it is unlikely that
presents much risk; however, garlic supplements contain certain rather potent and potentially toxic ingredients present only in
garlic. Few people eat large quantities of raw garlic on a regular basis, and therefore there is no long history of use to reassure us.
Modern research has raised concerns about many other herbs, as well. For example, the herb
has shown a theoretical potential for inhibiting milk supply. In addition, herbs with estrogen-like properties make scientists worry about possible effects on the fetus; these include
There are also theoretical concerns that high intake of
could increase risk of birth defects by interfering with
Further health concerns exist with
traditional Chinese herbal combinations
Ayurvedic herbal combinations
. These products have been found on occasion to contain toxic heavy metals, poisonous herbs, or unlabelled prescription drugs.
For example, in one case report, a brain-damaged child born to a mother using an Ayurvedic formula was found to have the highest bloods levels of lead ever recorded in a living newborn.
Analysis of the formula revealed a very high lead content, along with toxic levels of mercury. In general, it is probably accurate to say that
can be regarded as definitely benign.
that are essential nutrients, such as vitamins, generally have a known maximum safe intake level during pregnancy and nursing, and these are discussed in the relevant articles in this database. However, other supplements that are not essential nutrients are in much the same position as herbs, and they could conceivably cause harm. For example, the supplement
conjugated linoleic acid
appears to reduce the fat content of breast milk, with potentially harmful effects on the nursing infant,
may cause impaired nutrient absorption, and at times may contain arsenic. (Contamination with toxic substances is also a real possibility with one nutrient supplement: certain calcium supplements have been found to contain high levels of lead.)
Nonetheless, many herbs and supplements have a high enough safety factor that researchers have felt comfortable giving them to pregnant women. For more information on a particular herb or supplement, see its entry in the
Herbs & Supplements database
Newall C, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD.
Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals.
London, England: Pharmaceutical Press; 1996:15-16.
Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe?
Masters N, McGuire MA, Beerman KA, et al. Maternal supplementation with CLA decreases milk fat in humans.
Boyer EW, Kearney S, Shannon MW, et al. Poisoning from a dietary supplement administered during hospitalization.
Pediatrics Electronic Pages
Florkowski CM, Elder PA, Lewis JG, et al. Two cases of adrenal suppression following a Chinese herbal remedy: a cause for concern?
N Z Med J
Cronin AJ, Maidment G, Cook T, et al. Aristolochic acid as a causative factor in a case of Chinese herbal nephropathy.
Nephrol Dial Transplant
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care
provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a
substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the
advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to
starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a