The following steps can help you manage
Lose Excess Weight
Excess weight puts a strain on the heart muscle, which eventually can lead to angina and coronary artery disease. If you are overweight, adopt a sensible eating plan and
to lose weight gradually, and then
maintain your weight
at the desired level.
Quit or Avoid Smoking
damages your blood vessels and lung tissue, reduces the amount of oxygen in your blood, and forces your heart to beat faster. Discuss with your doctor the best way to
Limit Fat and Cholesterol
Diets that are high in saturated fat and cholesterol increase your risk of CAD. Saturated fat and cholesterol are found in animal products, full-fat dairy products (such as milk, cream, and cheese), lard, and palm and coconut oils, among other foods. A registered dietitian can help you reduce saturated fats and cholesterol in your diet. Good dietary choices include fresh fruits and vegetable, as well as lean meats and fish—particularly fish rich in
omega-3 fatty acids
, such as salmon.
Limit Alcohol Intake
Alcohol intake should be limited to no more then 1 to 2 ounces a day. Small amounts of alcohol in this range may have beneficial effects such as raising your good cholesterol (HDL).
Control Blood Glucose Levels If You have Diabetes
People who have
may reduce their risk of heart attack or other cardiac events if they maintain their blood glucose near normal levels. There are many other proven health benefits to maintaining tight control of blood glucose. If you have diabetes, talk to your doctor about ways to manage your blood sugar level.
Keep Homocysteine Levels Low
Homocysteine is an amino acid found naturally in the body. High levels in the blood are linked to CAD. Currently, scientists are not sure whether homocysteine is a cause of CAD, or just a marker. However, homocysteine levels may be reduced by an increased intake of vitamin
Maintain Normal Blood Pressure
High blood pressure
(hypertension) is one of the most critical risk factors for angina and coronary artery disease. Hypertension causes the heart muscle to work harder. The increased strain on the heart can lead to heart failure. Discuss with your doctor the best way to reach and maintain a healthy blood pressure. If
do not sufficiently reduce your blood pressure, medication may be needed.
For people who have not yet developed recognizable CAD, regular aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking or using a stationary bike or treadmill, is recommended. Exercise can strengthen the heart muscle and lower blood pressure and is recommended in moderation (at least 3-4 times a week for 30 minutes). However, if you already have CAD, check with your doctor before starting any new exercise program.
When to Contact Your Doctor
There are some common warning signs that may signal angina and CAD. Contact your doctor if you notice any of these symptoms:
Chest pain of any kind
Shortness of breath out of proportion to exercise or exertion
The Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis.
Libby P, Braunwald E.
Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine.
8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2007.
Wilson P. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease. How great is the hazard?
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care
provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a
substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the
advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to
starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a