• Magnesium Chloride, Magnesium Citrate, Magnesium Fumarate, Magnesium Gluconate, Magnesium Malate, Magnesium Orotate, Magnesium Oxide, Magnesium Sulfate
• Following a
Magnesium is an essential nutrient, meaning that your body needs it for healthy functioning. It is found in significant quantities throughout the body and used for numerous purposes, including muscle relaxation, blood clotting, and the manufacture of ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the body's main energy molecule).
It has been called nature's calcium channel blocker. The idea refers to magnesium's ability to block calcium from entering muscle and heart cells. A group of prescription heart medications work in a similar way, although much more powerfully. This may be the basis for some of magnesium's effects when it is taken as a supplement in fairly high doses.
Requirements for magnesium increase as we grow and age. The official US and Canadian recommendations for daily intake are as follows:
- 0-6 months: 30 mg
- 7-12 months: 75 mg
- 1-3 years: 80 mg
- 4-8 years: 130 mg
- 9-13 years: 240 mg
- 14-18 years: 410 mg
- 19-30 years: 400 mg
- 31 years and older: 420 mg
- 9-13 years: 240 mg
- 14-18 years: 360 mg
- 19-30 years: 310 mg
- 31 years and older: 320 mg
- Pregnant Women
- 18 years and younger: 400 mg
- 19-30 years: 350 mg
- 31-50 years: 360 mg
- Nursing Women
- 18 years and younger: 360 mg
- 19-30 years: 310 mg
- 31-50 years: 320 mg
Note : These recommendations refer to total intake from food plus supplements. The average diet provides a daily intake of magnesium very close to these amounts.
In the United States, the average dietary intake of magnesium is lower than the recommended daily allowance; however, it is unclear whether this truly indicates deficiency, or if the recommended allowance is too high. 1,2
A typical supplemental dosage of magnesium ranges from the nutritional needs described above to as high as 600 mg daily. For premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), an alternative approach is to start taking 500 to 1,000 mg daily, beginning on day 15 of the menstrual cycle and continuing until menstruation begins.
Magnesium citrate may be slightly more absorbable than other forms of magnesium. 100
Preliminary double-blind studies suggest that regular use of magnesium supplements may help prevent migraine headaches
Magnesium supplements do not appear to be very helpful, if at all, for preventing
Magnesium is sometimes said to decrease symptoms of
Magnesium has also been suggested as a treatment for
Magnesium is sometimes advocated for stabilizing the heart after a
Alternative medical literature frequently mentions magnesium as a treatment for
Although magnesium is sometimes mentioned as a treatment to help keep the heart beating normally, a 6-month, double-blind trial of 170 people did not find it effective for preventing a particular
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Magnesium?
A double-blind study found that regular use of magnesium helps prevent
. In this 12-week trial, 81 people with recurrent migraines were given either 600 mg of magnesium daily or placebo.
Similar results have been seen in other smaller double-blind studies.
Noise-related Hearing Loss
Magnesium inhibits the growth of calcium oxalate stones in the test tube
Magnesium works with calcium and potassium to regulate
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 187 people with
After a Heart Attack
In a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 468 individuals who had just experienced a
A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 50 women with
Similarly positive results were seen in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 21 women.
Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 32 women found that magnesium taken from day 15 of the menstrual cycle to the onset of menstrual flow could significantly improve
Another small double-blind preliminary study found that regular use of magnesium could reduce symptoms of PMS-related fluid retention.
In addition, one small double-blind study (20 participants) found that magnesium supplementation can help prevent menstrual migraines.
The US government has set the following upper limits for use of magnesium supplements:
- 1-3 years: 65 mg
- 4-8 years: 110 mg
- Adults : 350 mg
- Pregnant or Nursing Women : 350 mg
In general, magnesium appears to be quite safe when taken at or below recommended dosages. The most common complaint is loose stools. However, people with severe kidney or heart disease should not take magnesium (or any other supplement) except on the advice of a physician. Maximum safe dosages have not been established for young children. There has been one case of death caused by excessive use of magnesium supplements in a developmentally and physically disabled child. 84
If taken at the same time, magnesium can interfere with the absorption of antibiotics in the
Interactions You Should Know About
If you are taking:
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Last reviewed April 2009 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
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