In photodynamic therapy (PDT), photosensitizers, or light-sensitive molecules, are injected into the bloodstream and absorbed by cells throughout the body. These agents remain in cancer cells longer than in normal cells. When the cancer cells are exposed to laser light, the photosensitizers are activated and cause cell damage and death.
Photodynamic therapy is often used to decrease symptoms, rather than to cure cancer. It may help control bleeding or breathing problems. This technique can be very effective but it is not considered a standard option like surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy is only offered at some medical centers around the country and is best used when there is not much cancer to be killed—the chemical is absorbed only a short distance into the tumor, so a big tumor will not be affected by this method.
Photodynamic therapy will make your skin and eyes more sensitive than normal to light for at least six weeks. Avoid the sun, and if you must go outside, wear sunglasses and protective clothing. When indoors, avoid bright indoor lighting.
The YAG laser is a special light source that can be used by the doctor (usually a pulmonologist or surgeon) to core out an area where cancer is located and is blocking your airway. The YAG laser may be appropriate when there is a tumor in the airway preventing air from passing through, and radiation or surgery cannot be done.
This procedure is used to alleviate symptoms; it does not cure lung cancer.
The following side effects may occur:
Coughing up blood
Bleeding to death
Perforating the airway
Collapsing of the lung
Air embolism (air entering the circulatory system)
Stents are mesh devices that keep an airway open. The doctor will insert the stent into your airway through a bronchoscope and then open it up. The stent is designed to hold the airway open from the inside, when the tumor is otherwise trying to close it down. The stent only serves as a meshwork lattice and cannot prevent the tumor from ultimately growing through.
This procedure is used to alleviate symptoms; it is not curative. It is usually used as a temporary solution, and other treatments may be necessary along with it, such as
Possible complications of bronchoscopy include:
Bleeding at the biopsy site
Irregular heart rate
Sore and swollen throat
American Cancer Society
American Lung Association
National Cancer Institute
Sheski FD, Mathur PN. Endoscopic treatment of early-stage lung cancer.
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care
provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a
substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the
advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to
starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a