Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing. The strength of the x-rays used in radiation therapy is significantly stronger than that of a normal chest x-ray. The strength of these rays destroys a cell’s ability to reproduce.
There are two types of radiation therapy, and some people receive both types. They are:
External beam radiation therapy
—The rays are directed at the affected area from the outside of your body. This procedure is like having an x-ray. If you receive external radiation therapy, you will go to the hospital or clinic each day for treatment. Usually, treatments are given 5 days a week for 5 to 6 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the tumor site often gets an extra dose of radiation.
—This treatment gives additional, high-dose radiation directly to the area affected by the cancer. A capsule containing radioactive materials is placed directly into the cervix and another carrier may be placed in your vagina against the outside of the cervix.
This capsule is usually left in place for 1 to 3 days, and the treatment may be repeated several days over the course of 1 to 2 weeks. You will stay in the hospital while the implants are in place.
At some cancer centers, the radioactive implants can be performed over minutes instead of days, and there is no reason for an inpatient hospitalization. This latter method is called high dose rate brachytherapy. It is as effective as the older, more traditional low dose rate method, but it is far more convenient and less expensive.
Possible side effects include:
Hair loss in the treatment area affected by the radiation
Loss of appetite
Bowel irritation, including
, blood in stool, and pain in the anal and vaginal areas
Cessation of menstruation
Vaginal itching, burning, and dryness
Changes in sexual and reproductive health
Possible blood clots in the pelvis or legs due to confinement to bed
When to Contact Your Doctor
Call your doctor if you experience any of the following:
A pain that doesn't go away, especially if it's always in the same place
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care
provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a
substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the
advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to
starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a