It is possible to have a
and have no symptoms. This happens in about 70% of cases. Many people who do not know they are infected carry the infection for years. They can transmit it to others and slowly scar their genital organs. In these cases, infected people may have nonspecific symptoms, like vague back or pelvic pain, bowel trouble, painful intercourse, or loss of energy. If recognizable symptoms do occur, they usually appear within 1-3 weeks of exposure.
Symptoms in Men
Purulent (made up of pus) discharge from the penis
Burning, itchy, or painful sensation while urinating
Swollen or tender testicles
Symptoms in Women
Increased or abnormal vaginal discharge
Strong vaginal odor
Vaginal redness or irritation
Painful and frequent urination
Unusual vaginal bleeding (ie, between periods)
Pain or bleeding during or after sex
Effects of Untreated Chlamydial STD
Untreated chlamydial STD can have serious results:
Testicles—Chlamydia may cause
, a painful swelling and inflammation of the testicles that may lead to infertility.
Urethra—The inside of the urethra may become inflamed (
), which will cause burning when passing urine and can lead to scarring. This can cause difficulty passing urine and even urine flow blockage.
Prostate—Chlamydia may cause inflammation of the prostate gland (
). Symptoms include pain in and around the groin and pelvis, discomfort when urinating, and perhaps flu-like symptoms—fever, chills, aching-all-over, lethargy.
Joints and eyes—Chlamydia may cause joint pain which is just one symptom in a collection of conditions, called
, which also includes urethritis, arthritis, and
Chlamydia can cause
pelvic inflammatory disease
(PID), a serious infection that can lead to
, even in women who never have symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they are usually pelvic pain and pain with intercourse. PID causes scar tissue to form in the fallopian tubes and may even produce an abscess in a fallopian tube.
Scarring also increases the risk of a
, as well as infertility. A tubal pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg cannot reach the uterus (womb) due to scarring in the fallopian tube. The result can be disastrous if an abscess or a tubal pregnancy is not removed surgically. Either one can rupture and cause bleeding or infection inside the abdomen—both surgical emergencies.
Appendix and liver—Chlamydia and
can both cause inflammation inside the abdomen, not only around the reproductive organs, but also around the appendix or the liver. When the liver is involved the symptoms resemble
—fever and pain under the right ribs. This condition is called Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. There may also be a vaginal discharge or bleeding from involvement of the cervix, or swelling and pain in small (Bartholin’s) glands in the external genitals.
In Men and Women
Rectum—Chlamydial infection can spread to the rectum or begin there from anal intercourse. It causes pain, anal discharge and bleeding, and lower abdominal cramping.
Throat—Oral sexual contact can lead to a chlamydial infection in the throat that resembles
Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)
LGV usually begins with a small and transient blister, lump, or ulcer in the genitals. This lesion usually goes unnoticed. Two to six weeks later, regional lymph nodes begin to swell, reach alarming proportions, and may form abscesses that drain pus. Other common symptoms include: fever, painful urination, pain in the low back, abdomen, or the groin area. The most obvious site is in the groin. Untreated, the swollen nodes eventually resolve, leaving behind scars or lumps of scar tissue.
Trachoma begins like a mild case of pink eye or an allergic reaction in the eye. Slowly the upper eyelid becomes scarred and retracted, drawing the eyelashes into contact with the cornea and scratching it. A fogging of the cornea develops that eventually clouds over and obscures vision. There are an estimated 84 million people in the world with trachoma. Trachoma is most frequently spread from person to person by unsanitary contact, including flies. Trachoma is currently very rare outside the developing world.
Chlamydial infections of the lungs may cause acute
with fever, chills, headache, cough,
, and light sensitivity. In some cases, the illness can resemble
. It may also involve other organs in the chest, like the heart or the lung linings.
Chlamydia lung infections are caused by organisms that are different from the ones that cause sexually transmitted diseases. The illness cannot result in any kind of sexually transmitted disease.
Pregnant women can transmit chlamydia to their newborns during birth. This may cause
(pink eye) or pneumonia in the baby.
British Association for Sexual Health and HIV guideline: 2006 UK national guideline for the management of genital tract infection with chlamydia trachomatis. British Association for Sexual health and HIV (BASHH). 2006.
Miller KE. Diagnosis and treatment of chlamydia trachomatis infection.
Am Fam Physian.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. Available at:
. Accessed September 18, 2008.
National Women's Health Organization. Chlamydia. National Women's Health Organization website. Available at:
. Updated May 2005. Accessed September 18, 2008.
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care
provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a
substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER
IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the
advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to
starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a