Trimethylglycine (TMG), also called betaine, is a substance manufactured by the body. It helps break down another naturally occurring substance called homocysteine.
In certain rare genetic conditions, the body cannot dispose of homocysteine, resulting in its accumulation to extremely high levels. This, in turn, leads to accelerated cardiovascular disease and other problems. Oral TMG is an FDA-approved treatment for this condition. It "methylates" homocysteine, removing it from circulation.
Meaningful, but not altogether consistent, evidence suggests that the relatively slight
Note : TMG is similar chemically to betaine hydrochloride, but it has entirely different actions.
TMG is not required in the diet because the body can manufacture it from other nutrients. Grains, nuts, seeds, and meats contain small amounts of TMG. However, most TMG in food is destroyed during cooking or processing, so food isn't a reliable way to get a therapeutic dosage.
After TMG has done its work on homocysteine, it is turned into another substance, dimethylglycine (DMG). Some manufacturers will tell you that DMG is identical to TMG, but this isn't true. DMG is not a methylating agent, so it can't have any effect on homocysteine. (See also Therapeutic Uses
Optimal therapeutic dosages of TMG are not known. Common recommendations range from 375 to 3,000 mg daily.
There is no doubt that TMG greatly reduces homocysteine levels and improves health among people with the rare disease cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency (as well as related conditions).
TMG also appears to reduce relatively mild homocysteine elevations in people without genetic defects.
TMG may help protect the liver against the effects of alcohol, perhaps by stimulating the formation of
TMG has also been suggested as a less expensive substitute for SAMe in other condition for which SAMe is used (such as
A substance labeled pangamic acid or vitamin B
has been extensively used as a performance enhancer by Russian athletes and has also become popular among American athletes. However, it is not clear there really is any such substance; or, to state it another way, various substances have at various times been given that name. Most recently, the term has been associated with a mixture of calcium gluconate and DMG; one small study failed to find this form of pangamic acid effective for
The only known safety issue with TMG is regarding cholesterol profile, as already mentioned. People with high or borderline-high cholesterol should use TMG only with caution.
Maximum safe dosages for young children, pregnant or nursing mothers, or those with severe liver or kidney disease have not been established.
3. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Junnila M, et al. Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res . 1993;17:552-555.
10. Schwab U, Torronen A, Meririnne E et al. Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans. J Nutr . 2005;136:34-38.
12. Olthof MR, Vliet TV, Verhoef P et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans. PLoS Med . 2005;2:e135.
Last reviewed April 2009 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
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