Urethritis is an inflammation, infection, or irritation of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder.
Urethritis is usually caused by bacteria or viruses, including:
Organisms that cause bladder or kidney infections:
- E. coli
- Organisms that cause sexually transmitted diseases (STDs):
- Ureaplasma urealyticum
- Mycoplasma genitalium
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition. Risk factors include:
- Sex: female
- Multiple sexual partners
- Recent change in sexual partners
- Unprotected sex (without use of a condom)
- History of other STDs
- Bacterial infection of other parts of the urinary tract (bladder, kidney, prostate)
- Medications that lower resistance to bacterial infection
- Having catheters or tubes placed in the bladder
- Acidic foods
There may be no symptoms especially in women. Approximately 50% of men infected with Chlamydia trachomatis have no symptoms.
Symptoms may include:
- Pain and/or burning while urinating
- Blood in the urine
Increase in urinary:
- Itching, swelling, and/or tenderness in the groin
- Pain during intercourse
- Discharge from the penis
- Blood in the semen
- Pain during ejaculation
- Swollen and/or tender testicles
If left untreated, urethritis can spread and cause infection in other parts of the urinary tract such as the bladder, ureters, or kidneys.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam, including a pelvic exam. Urethritis is usually diagnosed from its symptoms. Tests to confirm the diagnosis and identify the organism causing the condition may include:
- Urethral swab for microscopic study or culture
- Blood and urine tests
- Specific tests for Gonorrhea , Chlamydia , or other STDs
Urethritis is usually treated with medication. The type of medication will depend on the cause of the urethral infection:
- Antibiotics—to treat urethritis caused by bacteria
- Antiviral drugs—to treat urethritis caused by a virus
If urethritis is caused by an STD, all sexual partners should be tested and treated.
Steps to prevent urethritis include:
- Practicing safer sex by using condoms, and using the barrier methods of contraception
- Urinating immediately after having sexual intercourse
- Treating all sexual partners who are infected or exposed
- Regularly drinking plenty of fluids, including cranberry juice
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
US National Library of Medicine
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Women's Health Matters
CDC Guidelines, Clinical prevention guidance. MMWR Recomm Rep . 2006;55(R11):1-94.
Department of the Navy, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery website. Available at: http://navymedicine.med.navy.mil .
Diseases characterized by urethritis and cervicitis. MMWR Recomm Rep . 2006;55(R11):1-94.
The Merck Manual of Medical Information . Simon and Schuster, Inc.; 2000.
Miller KE. Diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Am Fam Physician . 2006;73:1411-1416.
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, NIDDKwebsite. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov .
US National Library of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov .
Last reviewed November 2008 by
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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