• Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA), Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Oil(s)
• ]]>Allergies]]>, ]]>Alzheimer’s Disease]]>, ]]>Angina]]>, Ankylosing Spondylitis, ]]>Asthma]]>, ]]>Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)]]>, ]]>Bipolar Disorder (Manic-depressive Illness)]]>, Borderline Personality Disorder, ]]>Cancer Treatment Support]]>, ]]>Chronic Fatigue Syndrome]]>, ]]>Crohn's Disease]]>, ]]>Depression]]>, ]]>Diabetic Neuropathy]]>, ]]>Dysmenorrhea (Menstrual Pain)]]>, ]]>Eczema (Prevention)]]>, ]]>Epilepsy]]>, ]]>Gout]]>, ]]>HIV Support]]>, ]]>Hypertension]]>, ]]>Kidney Stones]]>, ]]>Liver Disease]]>, ]]>Lupus]]>, ]]>Male Infertility]]>, ]]>Migraine Headaches]]>, ]]>Multiple Sclerosis]]>, ]]>Osteoporosis]]>, ]]>Pregnancy Support]]>, ]]>Prevention of Premature Birth]]>, ]]>Prostate Cancer Prevention]]>, ]]>Psoriasis]]>, ]]>Raynaud's Phenomenon]]>, ]]>Retinitis Pigmentosa]]>, ]]>Schizophrenia]]>, ]]>Sickle-cell Anemia]]>, ]]>Strokes (Prevention)]]>, ]]>Surgery Support]]>, ]]>Ulcerative Colitis]]>, ]]>Undesired Weight Loss]]> Caused by Cancer
Fish oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, one of the two main classes of essential fatty acids. ( ]]>Omega-6 fatty acids]]> are the other main type.) Essential fatty acids are special fats that the body needs for optimum health.
Interest in the potential therapeutic benefits of omega-3 fatty acids began when studies of the Inuit (Eskimo) people found that, although their diets contain an enormous amount of fat from fish, seals, and whales, they seldom suffer heart attacks. This is presumably because those sources of fat are very high in omega-3 fatty acids.
Subsequent investigation found that the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil have various effects that tend to reduce risk of heart disease and strokes. However, research into whether use of fish oil actually prevents these diseases, while somewhat positive, remains incomplete and somewhat inconsistent. In recognition of this, the FDA has allowed supplements containing fish oil or its constituents to carry a label that states: "Supportive but not conclusive research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease."
In addition, a slightly modified form of fish oil (ethyl-omega-3 fatty acids) has been approved by the FDA as a treatment for ]]>hypertriglyceridemia]]> (high triglycerides). ]]>237]]> This specially processed product, sold under the trade name Omacor, is widely advertised as more effective than ordinary fish oil. However, it should be noted that Omacor has undergone relatively little study itself; the physician prescribing information notes only two small trials to support its effectiveness for this use. This is a far lower level of evidence than usually required for drug approval and also substantially lower than the body of evidence supporting standard fish oil as a treatment for high triglycerides.
Fish oil has also shown promise as an anti-inflammatory treatment for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual pain, and lupus. In addition, it may be helpful for various psychiatric conditions.
There is no daily requirement for fish oil. However, a healthy diet should provide at least 5 g of essential fatty acids daily.
Many grains, fruits, vegetables, sea vegetables, and vegetable oils contain significant amounts of essential omega-6 and/or omega-3 fatty acids, but oil from cold-water fish is the richest natural source of omega-3 fats. It is commonly stated that people require a certain optimum ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids in the diet; however, there is no real evidence that this is true, and some evidence that it is false. 231]]>
Typical dosages of fish oil are 3 g to 9 g daily, but this is not the upper limit. In one study, participants ingested 60 g daily.
The most important omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil are called eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In order to match the dosage used in several major studies, you should take enough fish oil to supply about 2 g to 3 g of EPA (2,000 mg to 3,500 mg) and about 1.0 g to 2.5 g of DHA daily (1,000 mg to 2,500 mg). Far higher doses have been used in some studies; conversely, one study found blood-pressure lowering effects with a very low daily dosage of DHA—0.7 g. 238]]>
DHA and EPA are not identical and might not have identical effects. Some evidence hints that DHA may be more effective than EPA for thinning the blood ]]>176]]> and reducing blood pressure. ]]>105]]> The reverse may be true for reducing triglyceride levels, but study results are conflicting. ]]>160-165, 235]]>
Some manufacturers add vitamin E to fish oil capsules to keep the oil from becoming rancid. Another method is to remove all the oxygen from the capsule.
If possible, purchase fish oil products certified as free of significant levels of mercury, toxic organochlorines, and PCBs (see Safety Issues).
Flaxseed oil also contains omega-3 fatty acids, although of a different kind. It has been suggested as a less smelly substitute for fish oil. However, it is far from clear whether flaxseed oil is therapeutically equivalent to fish oil. ]]>1,200]]>
Consumption of fish oil alters the body’s production of certain substances in the class of chemicals called prostaglandins. Some prostaglandins increase inflammation while others decrease it. The prostaglandins whose production is enhanced by fish oil fall into the anti-inflammatory category. Based on this, fish oil has been tried as a treatment for early stages of rheumatoid arthritis]]> , with positive results. It is thought to significantly reduce symptoms without causing side effects and may magnify the benefits of standard arthritis drugs. ]]>37,38,179]]> However, while some standard medications can slow the progression of the disease, there is no evidence that fish oil can do this. Much weaker evidence hints that fish oil might be helpful for the related disease ankylosing spondylitis. ]]>232]]>
Fish oil’s apparent anti-inflammatory properties are the likely explanation for its apparent benefit in ]]>dysmenorrhea]]> (menstrual pain), as seen in two studies. ]]>39,40]]> Similarly, fish oil may be helpful for the autoimmune disease ]]>lupus]]> . ]]>137,191]]> (However, two studies failed to find fish oil helpful for kidney disease caused by lupus. ]]>138,139]]> ) Evidence has been mixed regarding whether fish oil is beneficial for ]]>Crohn's disease]]> or ]]>ulcerative colitis]]> , conditions in which parts of the digestive tract are highly inflamed.]]>49-51,61-68, 159,201]]> More recently, however, two well-designed trials enrolling a total of 738 patients convincingly failed to find any benefit for omega-3 fatty acid supplementations in the prevention of Crohn’s disease relapse.]]>254]]>
Incomplete evidence hints but does not prove that fish or fish oil might help prevent death caused by ]]>heart disease]]> . ]]>152,202]]> This effect, if it exists, seems to result from several separate actions. The best documented involves reducing ]]>high triglyceride levels]]> ; studies enrolling more than 2,000 people have substantiated this use. ]]>1]]> In addition, fish oil might raise HDL ("good") cholesterol levels, "thin" the blood, lower levels of ]]>homocysteine]]> , prevent dangerous heart arrhythmias, slow heart rate, improve blood vessel tone, and decrease ]]>blood pressure]]> . ]]>14,15,51,90-94,96-105,151,160-165,174,177,189,190,203-204,238]]> These effects also support findings that fish oil may help prevent ]]>strokes]]> . ]]>20,178]]> However, results are conflicting on whether people with ]]>angina]]> should take fish oil or increase intake of fatty fish; one large study actually found that fish oil increased risk of sudden death. ]]>206]]>
For a number of theoretical reasons, it has been suggested that fish oil and its constituents (especially a slightly modified form of EPA called ethyl-EPA) might have positive effects on various psychiatric disorders. However, the best studied use of fish oil-related products for ]]>depression]]> (its best studied use for psychiatric conditions) has shown disappointing results as larger trials have come in.]]>154,168,188,192,193,207,228,234,241,242,244]]> Preliminary, and not altogether consistent, evidence hints that high doses of fish oil may produce benefits in ]]>bipolar disorder]]> (more commonly known as manic-depressive illness), reducing risk of relapse and improving emotional state.]]>41,205,242]]> Other preliminary, and again not altogether consistent, evidence hints that fish oil might enhance the effectiveness of standard drugs (such as ]]>phenothiazines]]>) for schizophrenia.]]>48,148,169,170,193,247]]> Fish oil has also shown a bit of promise for borderline personality disorder. ]]>180]]> In one study, DHA failed to augment the effectiveness of standard therapy for ]]>attention deficit disorder]]> (ADD). ]]>89]]> However, two studies that evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil combined with ]]>omega-6 fatty acids]]> found some evidence of benefit for this condition.]]>88,194]]> Finally, one small trial found evidence that use of fish oil might decrease anger and aggressiveness in people with a history of aggressive behaviors, substance abuse, and problems with the law.]]>243]]>
Small studies also suggest that fish oil may be helpful in ]]>Raynaud's phenomenon]]> (a condition in which a person's hands and feet show abnormal sensitivity to cold temperatures), ]]>42,43]]>]]>sickle-cell anemia]]> , ]]>45]]> and a form of kidney disease called IgA nephropathy. ]]>47]]>
According to some, but not all studies, fish oil may help treat the ]]>undesired weight loss]]> often experienced by people with cancer. ]]>181-182]]> In addition, highly preliminary evidence hints that DHA might enhance the effects of the ]]>cancer chemotherapy]]> drug doxorubicin ]]>157]]> and decrease side effects of the chemotherapy drug irinotecan. ]]>158]]>
Use of fish oil by ]]>pregnant women]]> might help prevent premature birth, ]]>184-185,208,236]]> although evidence is somewhat inconsistent. In addition, use of fish oil by pregnant women may support healthy brain function ]]>183]]> and help prevent eczema and allergies in offspring. ]]>195]]>
Intriguing, but not yet at all reliable, evidence hints that fish oil, or its constituents, might be helpful for treating ]]>kidney stones]]> or alleviating the symptoms of ]]>chronic fatigue syndrome]]>, and reducing the risk of prostate ]]>cancer]]>.]]>54,56,58,59]]> Results are inconsistent regarding whether the use of fish oil can decrease seizure frequency in people with ]]>epilepsy]]>.]]>209,246]]>
One study found that insulin metabolism in 278 young, overweight subjects improved on a calorie-restricted diet rich in fish oil from seafood or supplements compared to those on a diet low in fish oil, suggesting that fish oil may help delay the onset of ]]>diabetes]]> in susceptible individuals.]]>258]]> Fish oil has also been proposed as a treatment for many other conditions, including ]]>diabetic neuropathy]]> , ]]>60]]>]]>allergies]]> , and ]]>gout]]> , but there has been little real scientific investigation of these uses.
Some, but not all, studies suggest that fish oil combined with ]]>omega-6 essential fatty acids]]> may augment the effectiveness of calcium in the treatment of ]]>osteoporosis]]> . ]]>86,87]]> One promising, but highly preliminary, double-blind, ]]>placebo-controlled]]> study suggests that the same combination therapy may improve symptoms of the severe neurological illness called Huntington’s disease. ]]>155]]>
For several other conditions, the current balance of the evidence suggests that fish oil is not effective.
For example, despite widely publicized claims that fish oil helps ]]>asthma]]> , most preliminary studies have failed to provide evidence that it is effective, and one study found that fish oil can actually worsen aspirin-related asthma. ]]>69-77,171]]> However, there is some evidence that use of fish oil could help prevent exercise-induced asthma in athletes. ]]>196,212]]> One study found that fish oil did not benefit the lung function of patients with cystic fibrosis.]]>251]]>
Similarly, a 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 167 individuals with recurrent ]]>migraine headaches]]> found that fish oil did not significantly reduce headache frequency or severity. ]]>149]]> Conflicting results have been seen in other, much smaller trials of fish oil for migraines. ]]>172,173]]>
One study found weak evidence that use of fish oil might decrease aggressive behavior in young girls (but, in this study, not in young boys). ]]>213]]> Another study found benefit in developmental coordination disorder (a condition in which children suffer from lack of physical coordination as well as problems with learning and behavior). ]]>214]]>
Fish oil is also sometimes recommended for enhancing immunity in ]]>HIV]]> infection. However, one 6-month, double-blind study found that a combination of the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil plus the amino acid arginine was no more effective than ]]>placebo]]> in improving immune function in people with HIV. ]]>78]]> Fish oil, however, might help individuals with HIV gain weight. ]]>79]]>
In one large, randomized, controlled trial, diets rich in fish and ]]>omega-3 fatty acids]]> from fish were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of developing colorectal cancer among men over a 22-year period.]]>255]]> Another study provides preliminary evidence for the benefits of fish oil in reducing the risk of prostate cancer.]]>57]]> On balance, however, there is still relatively little evidence that the consumption of fish oil ]]>reduces cancer risk]]>. ]]>215]]>
Preliminary studies have suggested that fish oil could help symptoms of ]]>multiple sclerosis]]> ; however, the largest double-blind study on the subject found no difference between people taking fish oil and those taking olive oil (used as a placebo). ]]>80-84,216]]>
One study failed to find fish oil more effective than placebo for treating ]]>stress]]> . ]]>217]]> DHA has also been tried for slowing the progression of ]]>retinitis pigmentosa]]> (a condition in which the retina gradually degenerates), but without much success. ]]>210-211]]>
Use of essential fatty acids in the omega-3 family has also shown some promise for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver.]]>245]]>
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Fish Oil?
Heart Disease Prevention
Studies on fish or fish oil for preventing cardiovascular disease, slowing the progression of cardiovascular disease]]> , and preventing heart-related death have returned somewhat contradictory results. ]]>106-125,150,156]]> A major review published in 2004 failed to find trustworthy evidence of benefit, ]]>218]]> and a subsequent study actually found that use of fish oil increases risk of sudden death in people with stable heart disease. ]]>219]]> These contradictory results suggest that fish oil's benefit in heart disease, if any, is slight.
A gigantic study (over 18,000 participants) published in 2007 was widely described in the media as finally proving beyond a shadow of a doubt that fish oil helps prevent heart problems. ]]>239]]> Unfortunately, this study lacked a placebo group, and therefore failed to provide reliable evidence.
As noted earlier, fish oil is hypothesized to exert several separate effects that act together to help protect the heart. The most important action of fish oil may be its apparent ability to reduce ]]>high triglyceride levels]]> . Like cholesterol, triglycerides are a type of fat in the blood that tends to damage the arteries, leading to heart disease. According to most, though not all, studies, fish oil supplements can reduce triglycerides by as much as 25% to 30%. ]]>90-93,151,256]]> A slightly modified form of fish oil (ethyl-omega-3 fatty acids) has been approved by the FDA as a treatment for elevated triglycerides. However, in some studies, use of fish oil has markedly raised LDL ("bad") cholesterol, which might offset some of the benefit.
]]>Stanols]]> and sterols (or phytosterols) are naturally occurring substances found in various plants that can help to lower cholesterol in individuals with normal or mildly to moderately elevated levels. A study investigating the possible benefit of combining a phytosterol with fish oil found that together they significantly lowered total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, and raised HDL (“good”) cholesterol in subjects with undesirable cholesterol profiles.]]>257]]>
Fish oil has been specifically studied for reducing triglyceride levels in people with ]]>diabetes]]> , and it appears to do so safely and effectively. ]]>3]]> It also seems to remain effective in individuals who are already using statin drugs to control lipid levels (both people with and without diabetes). ]]>14,15,197]]> However, one study found that the standard drug ]]>gemfibrozil]]> is more effective than fish oil for reducing triglycerides. ]]>94]]>
Some but not all studies suggest that fish, fish oil, or EPA or DHA separately may additionally raise the level of HDL ("good") cholesterol and possibly improve other aspects of cholesterol profile as well. ]]>96,97,151,164,165,197]]> This too should help prevent heart disease.
Additionally, fish oil may help the heart by "thinning" the blood and by reducing blood levels of ]]>homocysteine]]> , ]]>98,176,190]]> although not all studies have found a positive effect. ]]>198]]>
Studies contradict one another on whether fish oil can lower ]]>blood pressure]]> , ]]>99-104,177]]> but on balance the supplement does seem to exert a modest positive effect. ]]>174]]> A 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 59 overweight men suggests that the DHA in fish oil, but not the EPA, is responsible for this benefit. ]]>105]]>
Evidence is conflicting on whether fish oil helps prevent heart arrhythmias. ]]>220-224,248]]>
Fish oil may slightly reduce heart rate . ]]>225]]> This effect could contribute to preventing heart attacks and other heart problems.
The results of numerous small double-blind trials indicate that omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil can help reduce the symptoms of ]]>rheumatoid arthritis]]>.]]>126,127,179,187]]> At least one small study suggests that it may help rheumatoid arthritis patients lower their dose of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication (eg, ibuprofen).]]>253]]> The benefits of the fish oil effect may be enhanced by a vegetarian diet. ]]>187]]> Simultaneous supplementation with olive oil (about two teaspoons daily) may further increase the benefits. ]]>226]]> However, unlike some conventional treatments, fish oil probably does not slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis.
Regular use of fish oil may reduce the pain of ]]>menstrual cramps]]> .
In a 4-month study of 42 young women aged 15 to 18, half the participants received a daily dose of 6 g of fish oil, providing 1,080 mg of EPA and 720 mg of DHA daily. ]]>128]]> After 2 months, they were switched to placebo for another 2 months. The other group received the same treatments in reverse order. The results showed that these young women experienced significantly less menstrual pain while they were taking fish oil.
Another double-blind study followed 78 women, who received either fish oil, seal oil, fish oil with vitamin B 12 (7.5 mcg daily), or placebo for three full menstrual periods. ]]>129]]> Significant improvements were seen in all treatment groups, but the fish oil plus vitamin B 12 proved most effective, and its benefits continued for the longest time after treatment was stopped (3 months). The researchers offered no explanation why vitamin B 12 should be helpful.
A 4-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 30 individuals suggests that fish oil can enhance the effects of standard treatments for ]]>bipolar disorder]]> , reducing risk of relapse and improving emotional state. ]]>130]]> Eleven of the 14 individuals who took fish oil improved or remained well during the course of the study, while only 6 out of the 16 given placebo responded similarly.
Another small study found that ethyl-EPA (a modified form of EPA) is helpful for the depressive phase of bipolar disease. ]]>227]]>
A 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the potential benefits of fish oil in 20 individuals with ]]>depression]]> . ]]>154]]> All but one participant were also taking standard antidepressants and had been taking them for at least 3 months. By week 3, the level of depression had improved to a significantly greater extent in the fish oil group than in placebo group. Six of 10 participants given fish oil, but only one of 10 given placebo, showed at least a 50% reduction in depression scores by the end of the trial. (A reduction of this magnitude is considered a “cure.”)
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 70 people who were still depressed despite standard therapy (such as ]]>SSRIs]]>) found that additional treatment with ethyl-EPA (a modified form of EPA) improved symptoms. ]]>175]]> Similar add-on benefits were also seen in other double-blind studies of ethyl-EPA or mixed essential fatty acids. ]]>192-193,228,250]]> However, one study failed to find benefit with fish-oil as an add-on treatment. ]]>229]]> Another double-blind study failed to find DHA alone helpful for depression. ]]>188]]>
Additionally, a small preliminary study of women found that fish oil was significantly more effective than placebo at alleviating post-partum depression.]]>252]]> However, another small, placebo-controlled study was unable to show a benefit in women suffering from depression whether before or after delivery.]]>249]]>
In small, double-blind studies, fish oil has been found to reduce the severe finger and toe responses to cold temperatures that occur in ]]>Raynaud's phenomenon]]> . ]]>131,132]]> However, these studies suggest that a higher than usual dosage must be used to get results, perhaps 12 g daily.
There is some evidence that essential fatty acids may enhance the effectiveness of calcium in ]]>osteoporosis]]> . In one study, 65 postmenopausal women were given calcium along with either placebo or a combination of omega-6 fatty acids (from evening primrose oil) and omega-3 fatty acids (from fish oil) for a period of 18 months. At the end of the study period, the group receiving essential fatty acids had higher bone density and fewer fractures than the placebo group. ]]>135]]>
However, a 12-month, double-blind trial of 42 postmenopausal women found no benefit. ]]>136]]>
The explanation for the discrepancy may lie in the differences between the women studied. The first study involved women living in nursing homes, while the second studied healthier women living on their own. The latter group of women may have been better nourished and already received enough essential fatty acids in their diet.
]]>Lupus]]> is a serious autoimmune disease that can cause numerous problems, including fatigue, joint pain, and kidney disease. One small, 34-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study compared placebo against daily doses of EPA (20 g) from fish oil. ]]>137]]> A total of 17 individuals completed the trial. Of these, 14 showed improvement when taking EPA, while only 4 did so when treated with placebo. Another small study found similar benefits with fish oil over a 24-week period. ]]>191]]> However, two small studies failed to find fish oil helpful for lupus nephritis (kidney damage caused by lupus). ]]>138,139]]>
Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Based on evidence that essential fatty acids are necessary for the proper development of brain function in growing children, EFAs have been tried for the treatment of ]]>ADHD]]> and related conditions.
A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found some evidence that a supplement containing fish oil and ]]>evening primrose oil]]> might improve ADHD symptoms. ]]>140]]> However, a high dropout rate makes the results of this trial somewhat unreliable. Another small study examined fish oil in children with ADHD who had thirst and skin problems. Benefits were seen with fish oil, but they also occurred with placebo and to about the same extent. ]]>194]]>
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of children already using stimulant therapy, addition of DHA for 4 months failed to further improve symptoms. ]]>141]]>
Fish oil appears to be generally safe. The most common problem is fishy burps. However, there are some safety concerns to consider.
For example, it has been suggested that some fish oil products contain excessive levels of toxic substances such as organochlorines and PCBs. 166]]> If possible, try to purchase fish oil products certified not to contain significant levels of these contaminants. Note: Various types of fish contain mercury, but this has not been a problem with fish oil supplements, according to reports on Consumerlab.com.
Fish oil has a mild blood-thinning effect; in one case report, it increased the effect of the blood-thinning medication warfarin (Coumadin). ]]>199]]> Fish oil does not seem to cause bleeding problems when it is taken by itself ]]>142]]> or with aspirin. ]]>143]]> Nonetheless, people who are at risk of bleeding complications for any reason should probably consult a physician before taking fish oil.
Fish oil does not appear to raise blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. ]]>144,145]]> Nonetheless, if you have diabetes, you should not take any supplement except on the advice of a physician.
Fish oil may also raise the level of LDL ("bad") cholesterol; it is possible, however, that this effect may be short-lived, and that levels return to normal with continued use. ]]>146,147]]>
If you decide to use cod liver oil as your fish oil supplement, make sure you do not exceed the safe maximum intake of ]]>vitamin A]]> and ]]>vitamin D]]> . These vitamins are fat soluble, which means that excess amounts tend to build up in your body, possibly reaching toxic levels. The official maximum daily intake of vitamin A is 3,000 mcg for pregnant women as well as other adults. Look at the bottle label to determine how much vitamin A you are receiving. (It is less likely that you will get enough vitamin D to produce toxic effects.)
8. Radack K, Deck C, Huster G. The effects of low doses of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1173-1180.
11. Whelton PK, Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, et al. Efficacy of nonpharmacologic interventions in adults with high-normal blood pressure: results from phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(suppl 2):S652-S660.
12. von Schacky C, Angerer P, Kothny W, et al. The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:554-562.
15. Durrington PN, Bhatnagar D, Mackness MI, et al. An omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate administered for one year decreased triglycerides in simvastatin treated patients with coronary heart disease and persisting hypertriglyceridaemia. Heart. 2001;85:544-548.
17. Nenseter MS, Osterud B, Larsen T, et al. Effect of Norwegian fish powder on risk factors for coronary heart disease among hypercholesterolemic individuals. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2000;10:323-330.
30. [No authors listed]. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Lancet. 1999;354:447-455.
32. Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, King I, et al. Dietary intake and cell membrane levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. JAMA. 1995;274:1363-1367.
35. Nilsen DW, Albrektsen G, Landmark K, et al. Effects of a high-dose concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or corn oil introduced early after an acute myocardial infarction on serum triacylglycerol and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:50-56.
36. Angerer P, Stork S, Kothny W, et al. Effect of marine omega-3 fatty acids on peripheral atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease—a randomised 2 year intervention trial [abstract]. Eur Heart J. 2001;22(suppl):162.
50. Lorenz-Meyer H, Bauer P, Nicolay C, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and low carbohydrate diet for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. A randomized controlled multicenter trial. Study Group Members (German Crohn's Disease Study Group). Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996;31:778-785.
51. Lorenz R, Weber PC, Szimnau P, et al. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from fish oil in chronic inflammatory bowel disease—a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial. J Intern Med Suppl. 1989;225:225-232.
59. Warren G, McKendrick M, Peet M. The role of essential fatty acids in chronic fatigue syndrome. A case-controlled study of red-cell membrane essential fatty acids (EFA) and a placebo-controlled treatment study with high dose of EFA. Acta Neurol Scand. 1999;99:112-116.
78. Pichard C, Sudre P, Karsegard V, et al. A randomized double-blind controlled study of 6 months of oral nutritional supplementation with arginine and omega-3 fatty acids in HIV-infected patients. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. AIDS. 1998;12:53-63.
82. Gallai V, Sarchielli P, Trequattrini A, et al. Cytokine secretion and eicosanoid production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients undergoing dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Neuroimmunol. 1995;56:143-153.
87. Bassey EJ, Littlewood JJ, Rothwell MC, et al. Lack of effect of supplementation with essential fatty acids on bone mineral density in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: two randomized controlled trials of Efacal v. calcium alone. Br J Nutr. 2000;83:629-635.
88. Richardson AJ, Puri BK. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002;26:233-239.
89. Voigt RG, Llorente AM, Jensen CL, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr. 2001;139:189-196.
91. Durrington PN, Bhatnagar D, Mackness MI, et al. An omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate administered for one year decreased triglycerides in simvastatin treated patients with coronary heart disease and persisting hypertriglyceridaemia. Heart. 2001;85:544-548.
93. Nenseter MS, Osterud B, Larsen T, et al. Effect of Norwegian fish powder on risk factors for coronary heart disease among hypercholesterolemic individuals. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2000;10:323-330.
100. Radack K, Deck C, Huster G. The effects of low doses of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1173-1180.
103. Appel LJ, Miller ER III, Seidler AJ, et al. Does supplementation of diet with 'fish oil' reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:1429-1438.
104. Whelton PK, Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, et al. Efficacy of nonpharmacologic interventions in adults with high-normal blood pressure: Results from phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(suppl 2):S652-S660.
118. [No authors listed]. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Lancet. 1999;354:447-455.
119. Angerer P, Stork S, Kothny W, et al. Effect of marine omega-3 fatty acids on peripheral atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease—a randomised 2 year intervention trial [abstract]. Eur Heart J. 2001;22(suppl):162.
121. Siscovick DS, Raghunathan TE, King I, et al. Dietary intake and cell membrane levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of primary cardiac arrest. JAMA. 1995;274:1363-1367.
125. Nilsen DW, Albrektsen G, Landmark K, et al. Effects of a high-dose concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or corn oil introduced early after an acute myocardial infarction on serum triacylglycerol and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:50-56.
136. Bassey EJ, Littlewood JJ, Rothwell MC, et al. Lack of effect of supplementation with essential fatty acids on bone mineral density in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: two randomized controlled trials of Efacal v. calcium alone. Br J Nutr. 2000;83:629-635.
140. Richardson AJ, Puri BK. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002;26:233-239.
141. Voigt RG, Llorente AM, Jensen CL, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr. 2001;139:189-196.
148. Fenton WS, Dickerson F, Boronow J, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:2071-2074.
150. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Sharma JP, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil and mustard oil in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction: the Indian experiment of infarct survival. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1997;11:485-491.
156. Marchioli R, Barzi F, Bomba E, et al. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione. Circulation. 2002;105:1897-1903.
159. Middleton SJ, Naylor S, Woolner J, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of essential fatty acid supplementation in the maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16:1131-1135.
160. Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, et al. Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:1085-1094.
164. Davidson MH, Maki KC, Kalkowski J, et al. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid on serum lipoproteins in patients with combined hyperlipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16:236-243.
168. Peet M, Horrobin DF. A dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:913-919.
170. Fenton WS, Dickerson F, Boronow J, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:2071-2074.
175. Peet M, Horrobin DF. A dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:913-919.
176. Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, et al. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on platelet, fibrinolytic and vascular function in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. Atherosclerosis. 2003;166:85-93.
178. Marchioli R, Schweiger C, Tavazzi L, et al. Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: results of GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico. Lipids. 2001;36(suppl):119-126.
182. Bruera E, Strasser F, Palmer JL, et al. Effect of fish oil on appetite and other symptoms in patients with advanced cancer and anorexia/cachexia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:129-134.
183. Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, et al. Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics. 2003;111:E39-E44.
184. Smuts CM, Huang M, Mundy D, et al. Plasse T, Major S, Carlson SE. A randomized trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101:469-479.
186. Blommers J, De Lange-De Klerk ES, Kuik DJ, et al. Evening primrose oil and fish oil for severe chronic mastalgia: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:1389-1394.
188. Marangell LB, Martinez JM, Zboyan HA, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:996-998.
190. Grundt H, Nilsen DW, Mansoor MA, et al. Reduction in homocysteine by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after 1 year in a randomised double-blind study following an acute myocardial infarction: no effect on endothelial adhesion properties. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2003;33:88-95.
193. Peet M. Eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia and depression: rationale and preliminary double-blind clinical trial results. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003;69:477-485.
195. Dunstan JA, Mori TA, Barden A, et al. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:1178-1184.
196. Mickleborough TD, Murray RL, Ionescu AA, et al. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print]
198. Finnegan YE, Howarth D, Minihane AM, et al. Plant and marine derived (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in moderately hyperlipidemic humans. J Nutr. 2003;133:2210-2213.
201. Romano C, Cucchiara S, Barabino A, et al. Usefulness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in addition to mesalazine in maintaining remission in pediatric Crohn's disease: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;11:7118-21.
208. Knudsen VK, Hansen HS, Osterdal ML, et al. Fish oil in various doses or flax oil in pregnancy and timing of spontaneous delivery: a randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 2006 Mar 27. [Epub ahead of print]
214. Richardson AJ, Montgomery P. The Oxford-Durham Study: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Dietary Supplementation With Fatty Acids in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder. Pediatrics. 2005;115:1360-1366.
216. Weinstock-Guttman B, Baier M, Park Y, et al. Low fat dietary intervention with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in multiple sclerosis patients. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;73:397-404.
217. Bradbury J, Myers SP, Oliver C, et al. An adaptogenic role for omega-3 fatty acids in stress; a randomised placebo controlled double blind intervention study (pilot). Nutr J. 2004 Nov 28. [Epub ahead of print]
220. Calo L, Bianconi L, Colivicchi F, et al. N-3 Fatty acids for the prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:1723-1728.
223. Raitt MH, Connor WE, Morris C, et al. Fish oil supplementation and risk of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation in patients with implantable defibrillators: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;293:2884-2891.
224. Geelen A, Zock PL, Brouwer IA, et al. Effect of n-3 fatty acids from fish on electrocardiographic characteristics in patients with frequent premature ventricular complexes. Br J Nutr. 2005;93:787-790.
229. Silvers KM, Woolley CC, Hamilton FC, et al. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in the treatment of depression. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;72:211-218.
233. Wichmann MW, Thul P, Czarnetzki HD, et al. Evaluation of clinical safety and beneficial effects of a fish oil containing lipid emulsion (Lipoplus, MLF541): data from a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. Crit Care Med. 2007 Jan 25. [Epub ahead of print]
234. Hallahan B, Hibbeln JR, Davis JM, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent self-harm: single-centre double-blind randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;190:118-122.
235. Schwellenbach LJ, Olson KL, McConnell KJ, et al. The triglyceride-lowering effects of a modest dose of docosahexaenoic acid alone versus in combination with low-dose eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with coronary artery disease and elevated triglycerides. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25:480-485.
236. Olsen SF, Osterdal ML, Salvig JD, et al. Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: a randomised clinical trial with fish oil. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]
239. Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet. 2007;369:1090-1098.
240. Freund-Levi Y, Basun H, Cederholm T, et al. Omega-3 supplementation in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]
241. Grenyer BF, Crowe T, Meyer B, et al. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Jun 19. [Epub ahead of print]
244. Rogers PJ, Appleton KM, Kessler D, et al. No effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (EPA and DHA) supplementation on depressed mood and cognitive function: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2007 Oct 24. [Epub ahead of print]
250. Jazayeri S, Tehrani-Doost M, Keshavarz SA, et al. Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and fluoxetine, separately and in combination, in major depressive disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:192-198.
252. Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu TH, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 Mar 18.
256. Damsgaard CT, Frokiaer H, Andersen AD, et al. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men. J Nutr. 2008;138:1061-1066.
257. Micallef MA, Garg ML. The lipid-lowering effects of phytosterols and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are synergistic and complementary in hyperlipidemic men and women. J Nutr. 2008;138:1086-1090.
258. Ramel A, Martinez A, Kiely M, et al. Beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids included in an energy-restricted diet on insulin resistance in overweight and obese European young adults. Diabetologia. 2008 May 20.
Last reviewed June 2008 by EBSCO CAM Review Board]]>
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © 2007 EBSCO Publishing All rights reserved.