There are many possible causes of female infertility. Tubal disease and endometriosis (a condition in which uterine tissue begins to grow where it shouldn't) account for 50% of female infertility; failure of ovulation is the cause of about 30%; and cervical factors cause another 10%.

An immense industry has sprung up around correcting female infertility, using techniques that range from hormone therapy to in vitro (test tube) babies. Although these methods have their occasional stunning successes, there is considerable controversy about the high cost and low rate of effectiveness of fertility treatments in general. The good news is that apparently infertile women often become pregnant eventually with no medical intervention at all.


Proposed Natural Treatments

Women with a condition known as polycystic ovary syndrome]]> (PCOS) may suffer from infertility. A ]]>double-blind, placebo controlled study]]> evaluated the effectiveness of ]]>N-acetylcysteine]]> (NAC) in 150 women with PCOS who had previously failed to respond to the fertility drug ]]>clomiphene]]> . ]]>12]]> Participants were given clomiphene plus placebo or clomiphene plus 1.2 g daily of NAC. The results indicated that combined treatment with NAC plus clomiphene was markedly more effective than clomiphene taken with placebo. Almost 50% of the women in the combined treatment group ovulated as compared to about 1% in the clomiphene alone group. Pregnancy rate in the combined treatment group was 21%, as compared to 0% in the clomiphene alone group.

]]>Black cohosh]]> ( Cimicifuga racemosa ), an herb with estrogen-like effects, drew the attention of researchers who were interested in whether it might be helpful for women with unexplained infertility who were also being treated with clomiphene, a commonly used medication to induce ovulation, but had yet to conceive. Roughly 120 women were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups continued to receive clomiphene, but the women in one of the groups also received 120 mg of black cohosh. Pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the black cohosh plus clomiphene group compared to the clomiphene only group. ]]>25]]>

In a small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, use of ]]>bee propolis]]> at a dose of 500 mg twice daily resulted in a pregnancy rate of 60%, as compared to 20% in the placebo group. ]]>14]]> This difference was ]]>statistically significant]]> .

Because of its effects on the hormone prolactin, the herb ]]>chasteberry]]> has been tried as a fertility treatment. ]]>1]]> However, the only properly designed study of this potential use was too small to return conclusive results. ]]>2]]> A larger study evaluated a combination containing chasteberry, ]]>green tea]]> , ]]>arginine]]> , and multiple vitamins and minerals. ]]>22]]> In this double-blind study, 93 women experiencing infertility were given either the combination treatment or placebo for three months. After three months, 26% of the women given the real treatment were pregnant as opposed to 10% of those in the placebo group, a difference that was statistically significant.

Weak evidence hints that ]]>vitamin D]]> and ]]>calcium]]> may also be helpful in this condition. ]]>9]]>

Another small study found some evidence that supplements containing ]]>isoflavones]]> may increase the effectiveness of in vitro fertilization. ]]>13]]>

Another study reported that ]]>vitamin C]]> supplements slightly improved pregnancy rates in women with a condition called "luteal phase defect," but because researchers failed to give the control group a placebo and instead merely left them untreated, the results are not very meaningful. ]]>15]]> (For information on why the use of a placebo is essential, see ]]>Why Does this Database rely on Double-Blind Studies?]]> ) Yet another study that had severe defects in design found reported that ]]>multivitamin supplements]]> may slightly increase fertility. ]]>3]]>

Stress may lead to infertility, and treatments for reducing ]]>stress]]> might help increase fertility. ]]>4-8]]>

The herb ]]>maca]]> (Lepidium) is widely advocated as a fertility-enhancing herb. However, the only basis for this claim are a few animal studies. ]]>17,18]]>

Caffeine avoidance has also been recommended for improving fertility, but there is no evidence as yet that it really helps. ]]>10]]>

]]>Acupuncture]]> has a long history of traditional use for infertility, but the supporting evidence for its use is weak. ]]>11]]> A few ]]>open trials]]> appeared to show that acupuncture can enhance the success rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). ]]>19-20]]> Two better designed studies, however, failed to find acupuncture more effective than placebo. ]]>21,23]]> A 2008 analysis of 7 randomized trials, involving a total of 1,366 patients, found that, on balance, acupuncture may significantly improve the odds of pregnancy in patients undergoing IVF. However, since not all 7 studies used sham (fake) acupuncture as a control, the reliability of this conclusion is thrown in doubt. ]]>24]]> Moreover, a second analysis in the same year of 13 randomized controls trials investigating the effectiveness of acupuncture in 2,500 women undergoing a specialized IVF procedure, in which sperm is injected directly into the egg, found no evidence of any benefit. ]]>26]]> But the story does not end here. In a subsequent review of 13 trials, a different group of researchers concluded that acupuncture may improve the success rate of IVF, but only if it is used on the day of embryo transfer (when the fertilized egg is placed into the womb). ]]>27]]> According to this study, acupuncture is not effective when used up to three days after embryo transfer or when eggs are being retrieved from the ovaries.

]]>Traditional Chinese herbal medicine]]> also has a long history of use for infertility, but there is no meaningful evidence to indicate that it is effective. Note : One case report has linked use of a Chinese herbal product with reversible ovarian failure. ]]>16]]>

Other treatments sometimes recommended for female infertility include ]]>ashwagandha]]> , ]]>false unicorn]]> , and ]]>beta-carotene]]> , but there is as yet no evidence that they work.