Cancer chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Unlike radiation and surgery, which are localized treatments, chemotherapy is a systemic treatment, meaning the drugs travel throughout the whole body. This means chemotherapy can reach cancer cells that may have spread, or metastasized, to other areas.

For stomach cancer, chemotherapy is usually combined with other types of treatment, such as ]]>surgery]]> and ]]>radiation therapy]]> , in an attempt to:

  • Increase survival time
  • Prevent recurrence
  • Provide some symptom relief

Chemotherapy is usually given after surgery. Research is being done to study the effects of chemotherapy given in an effort to shrink the stomach cancer before surgery.

Chemotherapy Drugs Used for Stomach Cancer

There are several chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat stomach cancer. Some are listed here:

  • Fluorouracil
  • Doxorubicin
  • Epirubicin
  • Methotrexate
  • Etoposide
  • Cisplatin
  • Irinotecan
  • Paclitaxel
  • Docetaxel
  • Mitomycin C
  • Vinblastine
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cytarabine
  • Vincristine

Chemotherapy agents may be given by mouth or by injection under the skin, into muscle, or into a vein. Research is studying the effects of chemotherapy instilled directly into the abdomen, called intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

Effectiveness of Chemotherapy for Stomach Cancer

Chemotherapy, when given in combination with radiation after surgery, increases the survival time and increases the amount of time before recurrence. In a group of stomach cancer patients who received chemotherapy and radiation following surgery, the 3-year survival rate was 50%, versus 41% in those who received no additional treatment after surgery. Relapse (return of cancer) occurred in 43% of the chemoradiation group compared to 64% in the no treatment group.

Chemotherapy may be helpful for more advanced stomach cancer that has already spread to organs outside of the stomach. This treatment may increase survival time by months. Various combinations of chemotherapy may bring about a response in up to 50% of patients; a response is defined as shrinkage of the tumor volume by 50%.

Side Effects

Chemotherapy given to treat stomach cancer may cause the following side effects:

  • Sunburn-like skin irritation
  • Nausea
  • ]]>Diarrhea]]>
  • Fatigue
  • Nerve damage
  • Low blood counts
  • Hair loss
  • Kidney damage