Mold won't grow in your lungs, but prolonged exposure to it and other airborne contaminants can affect your lungs. A couple of suggestions (please keep in mind that I'm not a doctor but these seem common-sensical to me): Check with your landlord to get the carpeting replaced; If you need to, get a sample of your carpet and have your landlord or doctor have it tested for mold (there are a couple of home improvement TV programs that will do this as part of their show); if you're not getting the attention you believe you need from your doctor do not hesitate to get a second opinion (particularly if you've explained the mold situation to them and they don't seem to think it's an issue); I know this one is difficult, but find a new apartment. You won't be able to undo any damage to your lungs, but you can prevent any more damage from being done. I would go with the first few suggestions to start before going with this one. You want to be sure that wherever you live and work is safe.
Mold will also grow in walls, furniture (bedding, sofa, chairs) and curtains and drapes.
Again, please don't take this as a medical professional opinion.
I hope this helps.