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Number One Reason for Developing an Eating Disorder

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Hundreds of people have asked me why someone develops an eating disorder. Of course many issues are involved, but from my exploration of this field over the years, I have concluded that there is one outstanding theme that runs through every person with an eating disorder whom I have encountered.

Early in their lives, people with eating disorders have experienced, on a sustained basis, relentless boundary invasion on every level.

When their physical, emotional, psychological, intellectual, sexual, and creative boundaries are consistently ignored and penetrated, people experience total boundary invasion. With no control and no way to end, protest, or, often, even acknowledge such invasions, these persons feel helplessness, despair, and a certainty that they are worthless to themselves or anyone else.

The consequences of such total invasion are vast. One consequence is an eating disorder. Having had so many boundaries disregarded, a person has no knowledge or skills in recognizing or honoring boundaries herself. She will eat or starve for emotional relief.

She may eat vast amounts of food for comfort value alone. She may deprive herself of food until her life is in danger. She has no internal regulator that tells her when she has reached her limit and experienced enough. Being oblivious to any boundaries means being oblivious to limits of any kind.

The compulsive overeater eats whenever and whatever she likes. She bases her choices on self-medication issues, not feelings of physical hunger.
The anorexic will not eat. There is no limit to her not eating. She will starve herself to death in search of relief from her emotional pain. She knows nothing of the experience of having enough. She couldn't say, "Enough," to an invader of her boundaries, and she can't say it to herself. The concept of enough has no meaning to her. She often feels that if she "disappeared," she might find some permanent relief.

I have heard countless anorexic young women talk ethereally, with a lost-in-a-beautiful-world-of-angels smile, of how wonderful it would be to become a vapor or a light dancing spirit in the clouds. Ah, such spiritual bliss, they imagine. In reality, it's the final self-protective act, to destroy their bodies and their lives completely. Then they can truly escape the complexities of being alive.

The bulimic will binge grotesque amounts of food. She will assault herself with more food than her body can tolerate.

The compulsive overeater will, at last, have to stop eating if only because of the pain in her distended stomach. Her body sets a final limit. The bulimic has no such limit. She experiences (in her mind) no consequences of the food assault on her body. When her body cannot bear more, she will vomit it all out. Then she will resume her binge. She may reach her body's limits many times. Each time she does, she can throw up again and continue.

Eventually she stops, because she is completely exhausted, or she is in danger of being discovered. "Enough" has no meaning to her. There are no limits and no consequences for her disregard of her boundaries.

Realistically, of course, there are plenty of consequences. Her behavior inflicts serious damage to her body. And each time she attacks herself with a binge-and-purge episode, she destroys more of her spirit, soul, self-esteem, sanity, health, and value to herself and others.

Each violation deepens her ritualistic behavior, and she becomes more entrenched in her disorder. The consequence is increasing anguish and despair. Yet the eating disorder is not the cause of that anguish and despair. The eating disorder exists to numb her from her already existing psychological agonies.

For a while, maybe a few years, the eating disorder successfully blocks her awareness of pain too difficult to bear. But eventually the protective device of the eating disorder becomes just another boundary invader, this time self-induced, that weakens and damages her even more.

What do I mean by a history of boundary violations? Blatant and extreme boundary violations involve sexual molestation, sexual abuse, and physical abuse. Much has been written about these areas now, especially in material exploring Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). Use your search engines to find some quality information posted on the Internet in these subject areas.

However, there are other kinds of boundary violations, and these are less dramatic, less discussed, more prevalent, and just as devastating to a persons psyche. When, in the name of caretaking, people in authority take over a young person's life, it constitutes boundary invasion.

When others deny her privacy, read her diary, borrow or take her things without permission, or use their ideas or goals or personalities to overwhelm her efforts in school or sports, that is a violation of her boundaries.

When others disregard or disdain her choices or deny her any control over her personal life, clothes, food, friends, and activities, they are invading her boundaries.

An invasion of boundaries also takes place when, in the name of caretaking, people give her no responsibilities of her own and attach no consequences to her actions. When the child or adolescent can have all the things she asks for without putting forth effort to earn such gifts, she learns nothing about personal effort, limits, consequences, or the meaning of enough. If she wants something, she gets it. That's all. If someone picks up her clothes, does her laundry, fixes her car, pays her bills, lends her money or things without expecting them returned, she experiences no boundaries and no limits.

If she doesn't have to keep her promises, if she doesn't reciprocate with caring actions for people who care for her, she learns nothing useful about herself in relationship to other people. The only thing she learns with certainty is that there are no limits to her behaviors or desires.

These boundary invasions are not loving acts, nor are they "spoiling" a child through overindulgence. Quite the contrary, they are acts of neglect. The child's taste, mind, capacity to learn, and ability to grow and function as an independent agent in the world remain unacknowledged.

When others, even well-meaning others, ignore her identity as a unique, developing, and competent individual and flood her with their personal agendas, she feels as if a steamroller had flattened out her psyche. She may learn to please, to manipulate, to compete, or to control, but she is unable to learn to be fully present in the world as her genuine self.

She doesn't learn that she has meaning and value. She doesn't learn that she can put that meaning and value within her to work to accomplish goals.
For example, if she breaks something, whether it is a lamp, a car, her word, or someone's heart, it is possible and healthier to give her the responsibility for making necessary repairs using her own resources and her own creativity. In such a process, she learns what effort means. She learns what responsibility and consequences for actions mean. She learns reasonable limits and reasonable expectations. She develops resources to make healthy and caring decisions in the future.

Without such lessons, she learns are the tricks involved in adapting quickly to the expectations of others or being manipulative to get what she wants. These are poor and insubstantial tools to rely on when building an adult life.

Somewhere inside, over time, she may gradually realize this. But without a sense of boundaries, she will only become bewildered and anxious. She will accelerate her practice of using her eating disorder as a way to numb her feelings of anxiety. She will use her manipulating skills to get what she wants from whomever she can exploit.

As time passes, fewer people in her life will allow themselves to be manipulated. The quality of her circle of associates will decline as she seeks people she can control with her inadequate methods of functioning in the world. She will find herself in bad company.

This becomes all the more reason to rely on eating disorder behaviors for comfort. The people around her are less reliable all the time. And finally, they tolerate her presence only because they can manipulate her.

She arrives at the total-victim position. Her manipulative skills backfire. People exist in this world who are better at manipulating and using than she. She has found them. She becomes their target and then their prey. Her dependence upon her eating disorder becomes her most valuable and trustworthy relationship.

Early in her development, she learned through massive boundary invasions (which perhaps seemed ordinary and unimportant at the time) that she was helpless to assert herself. She learned that she had no private or sacred space to cherish and respect. She could not acknowledge, even to herself, that she was being thwarted, invaded, controlled, manipulated, and forced to deny large aspects of her natural self. She had no recourse except to comply.

To succeed at being unaware of her natural tastes, curiosities, and inclinations and her pain in restraining her natural tendencies, she developed an eating disorder. Now that she's older and her manipulation skills are failing her, she only has her eating disorder to rely on. This may be the most crucial time in this person's life.

If her pain and despair are terrible enough and she is certain she cannot bear this way of living anymore, she still has choices. She can continue to rely on the eating disorder and by so doing take the path to self-destruction. Or she can reach out and get help.

This is a tough position for her. She's never known what enough was. Yet to choose to get help, she has to recognize that she has had enough pain. She's never known what a limit is. Yet she has to recognize that she has reached her limit and must choose between death and life. She has only known about pretense and manipulation. Yet she has to be honest to reach out for genuine help.

She feels massive anguish and pain before she stretches beyond her life pattern into what might bring her healing and recovery. She's reaching for something she can't imagine. It's difficult for a person with an eating disorder to decide to get help. She would have to allow herself to trust someone with knowledge of her real personhood.

She doesn't yet know that people who do respect and honor boundaries actually exist in this world. She doesn't yet know that there are people who can and will honor and cherish her most private and sacred inner spaces. She doesn't yet know that someday the trustworthy, respectful, steadfast, and competent caretaker she needs so badly can be herself.
Her first move toward recovery requires all the courage she can muster. Her recovery begins when with fear or rage, she rallies her courage to reach out for help.

Difficult, yes. But what she doesn't know yet is that she has been courageous all her life. She makes a grand discovery when she learns that she can apply her strength and courage to her own health. She can use her gifts to, at long last, be free of her eating disorder, be her genuine self in the world.

Professional Resources for Finding Help
Academy for Eating Disorders (AED)
American Anorexia and Bulimia Association (AABA)
Anorexia Nervosa and Related Disorders (ANRED)
International Association of Eating Disorders Professionals (IAEDP)
Joanna Poppink's Eating Disorders Resource List In-Patient Treatment Programs
National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA)
Joanna Poppink, Los Angeles psychotherapist, licensed since 1980 (MFT #15563), is deeply committed to bringing recovery to people suffering from eating disorders.

Her specialized psychotherapy practice is designed to allow clients to progress through anxiety situations to ongoing recovery from bulimia, compulsive eating, anorexia and binge eating. Her primary goal is to provide people with a way to achieve thorough and long lasting healing.
Eating Disorder Recovery book in progress through Conari Press
10573 West Pico Blvd. #20
Los Angeles, CA 90064
[email protected]

Add a Comment206 Comments

EmpowHER Guest

This woman and some of the other so called 'professionals' who are praising what she said are really scary! Go back to school, do your homework, keep up with the times/research - people. You can do a lot of harm. Parents do not cause eating disorders. Period. Sheez.

November 16, 2009 - 5:54pm
EmpowHER Guest

"But, the problem with attributing an eating disorder to a biologically based predisposition toward it is that testing is done AFTER the ED sufferer has developed the ED."

Exactly. PLUS, who's to say that some of the brain malfunction might not be caused in part by chronic malnutrition? It's like asking whether the chicken or the egg came first. We don't know if the ED behaviors are a CAUSE or a result of these brain malfunctions. Malnutrition is known to wreak havoc on the brain and body.

November 2, 2009 - 8:32pm
EmpowHER Guest


I suffered from anorexia and never experienced ANY emotional, sexual or other abuse from my parents or anybody else.

My parents were/are loving and wonderful people.

Keep your day job!

November 2, 2009 - 8:35am

I don't doubt that there is evidence that those suffering from an ED have some type of malfunctioning brain circuitry. But, the problem with attributing an eating disorder to a biologically based predisposition toward it is that testing is done AFTER the ED sufferer has developed the ED. I suspect that it is far more likely that the relentless environmental stress these women have been subjected to caused the brain to malfunction. I've read articles that demonstrate that, following successful therapy, brain scans of individuals who had recovered from a mental illness no longer suffered from any brain abnormality.

The "biologically based predisposition" argument can leave sufferers of any mental illness believing that they are genetically flawed and that full recovery is not possible. And, again, I don't buy that argument. It also possible that attributing an ED to genetics could discourage ED sufferers from confronting the emotionally based hostility/fear at that the root of the ED. Worse, parents that have failed their son or daughter, can cite the predisposition argument to absolve themselves of blame and, tragically, continue mistreating their child. I suspect that one reason that individuals find it so difficult to overcome an ED is that those who caused or contributed to the development of these EDs refuse to amend their behavior toward the ED sufferer. Indeed, the unfortunate behaviors that accompany an ED may very well cause bad parents to treat the ED sufferer worse. How difficult must it be for a person suffering from an emotional illness to recover, despite therapy, if those that made the individual sick fail or refuse to amend their ways? Now, the person suffering from a emotional illness is subjected to the same unhealthy environment while having to grapple with the "shame" of being labeled with a disorder.

While my friend who suffers from anorexia can be difficult to reach, it is not her fault. How could it be different? How difficult must it be for someone who has been so relentlessly emotionally abused to trust anyone? To not fear exposure of her most inner most pain and subsequent rejection and abandonment when the people who should have cared for her repeatedly let her down? And how much more difficult becomes the task of establishing a foundation of trust with her if well-meaning, but misguided, experts tell her that she's just a genetically flawed individual? My friend is not genetically flawed -- she's in pain, encased in a protective shell, and, I believe, hoping someone she can truly trust will come along to help extricate her from her pain.

November 2, 2009 - 8:28am
EmpowHER Guest
Anonymous (reply to Ronin)

For goodness sake many physically illnesses have some genetic predisposition. We don't talk in terms of the individuals being gentically flawed and give up on them. Hopefully they will receive evidence based treatment for whatever their illness and taught how to look after themselves to keep themselves healthy. They are made to feel "ashamed" by a society that isn't presented with current research. Many many parents ( yes I agree not all) who love their children have been made to feel guilty and "ashamed" of so called creating a child with an eating disorder. That is a disgrace.

Your friend is not "genetically flawed" because she has an eating disorder, neither is my son who has a kidney disorder, nor are the children I work with who have inherited dyslexia or language disorders. But yes they have inherited the genes that predispose them to these difficulties. It does not make them any less a loved, valued member of the community and their families. Please do not suggest that having a genetic predisposition makes you somehow a flawed individual. Knowing one has a gentic predisposition to any disorder or illness is valuable information whether it's breast cancer, heart failure or a learning disability. I wish your friend the very best. I hope like my two young adult children she will recover from her illness and learn how to maintain her mental and physical healthy from then on.

PS There is an increasing amount of research identifying those "at risk" PRIOR to the onset of an eating disorder and encouraging early intervention.

January 3, 2010 - 4:55am
EmpowHER Guest

Take good care of your precious self, Anony.

November 1, 2009 - 11:32am
EmpowHER Guest

Okay, thanks for your post Anon. I don't quite agree with you but I believe you're a sincere person.

November 1, 2009 - 11:27am
EmpowHER Guest

Oh, just to clarify, I have dx of EDNOS, depression, and anxiety. Even though I talked about PTSD in my post I don't actually have PTSD.

November 1, 2009 - 11:24am
EmpowHER Guest


A lot of people have a terrible childhood but they do not suffer from ED.

Sorry ... I believe that blaming a bad childhood or parents for an ED disorder is just misguided.

Why don't you take your psychiatrist's advice and go to a therapist that she recommends?

Best of luck to you!

I don't know if you suffer from BN OR AN, but I can tell you from personal experience - you CAN recover completely from an eating disorder.

May you find recovery and peace!

November 1, 2009 - 11:16am
EmpowHER Guest

Good post miscortes.

November 1, 2009 - 11:14am
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