Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition where the pancreas produces little or no insulin or the cells in the body stop responding to the insulin that is produced. Four types of the disease include type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, monogenic diabetes and gestational diabetes.
To understand the disease, one needs to know the roles of the pancreas and insulin plus the importance of glucose. Every cell in the human body requires energy to function.
Glucose is the primary source of energy. It is a simple sugar which results from the digestion of carbohydrates. Glucose circulates in the bloodstream as a ready source of energy.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which is an organ located behind the stomach. Insulin bonds to the receptor sites on the outside of a cell and acts as the key to allow glucose into the cell. Sometimes the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.