In the United States, about 15 percent of people have dyslexia, according to the Dyslexia Institute of Indiana. Dyslexia is a language-based learning disorder, in which the child has trouble reading. Children who have dyslexia have normal intelligence and vision. Dyslexia appears to have a genetic link, as the disorder tends to occur in families.
Before a child starts school, it may be difficult to identify if she has dyslexia. Early symptoms of the disorder include late talking and difficulty rhyming. A child with dyslexia may learn new words slowly. MayoClinic.com noted that when the child enters school, it is more noticeable that the child has dyslexia, especially when she is learning to read.
For example, the child can have difficulty spelling and following rapid instructions. Her reading level may be well below what is expected based on her age.
Dyslexia can cause problems with processing and comprehending auditory presented information. When a child with dyslexia is reading, she may see words or letters in reverse. For example, when she sees the letter “b,” she may process it as the letter “d.”
MayoClinic.com stated that this is common in young children, but seeing letters or words in reverse can be more severe in children with dyslexia. A child with dyslexia may also have trouble seeing the differences and similarities in words and letters. School-aged children with dyslexia may have difficulty when they need to follow more than one command at a time.
The disorder can also affect their memory of sequencing. When they see an unfamiliar word, they may not be able to pronounce it. Dyslexia can make it more difficult to learn a second language.
Symptoms of dyslexia can still be present in adolescence and adulthood. MayoClinic.com noted that if dyslexia is untreated during childhood, a patient can have these reading difficulties into adulthood. Teens and adults with dyslexia may also have difficulty memorizing information and reading aloud. Learning a new language may pose a problem.
Dyslexia may affect patients’ abilities to summarize a story or understand jokes. Trouble with time management may also occur.