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The Ins and Outs of Ear Infections in Children

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What is an ear infection?

The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Diseases defines an ear infection as “an inflammation of the middle ear, usually caused by bacteria, that occurs when fluid builds up behind the eardrum ... Three out of four children will have at least one ear infection by their third birthday. In fact, ear infections are the most common reason parents bring their child to a doctor.” (2) The technical term for an ear infection is otitis media.

“Ear infections peak at age 6 months to 2 years. They are a common problem until age 8 [and] 90% of children will have at least 1 ear infection.” (5) There are two possible reasons for why so many children are affected.

First, a child’s eustachian tubes are shorter, more horizontal, narrower and less stiff than those of adults, which means bacteria and viruses can find their way into the middle ear more easily, and they are more prone to blockage. (1)

Second, children have larger adenoids, gland-like structures located in the back of the upper throat near the eustachian tubes, which can interfere with the opening of the eustachian tubes. (1)

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that middle ear infections in children start either from a viral infection (such as a common cold), against which antibiotics don’t work, or from unhealthy bacterial growth.

What are the symptoms of ear infections in children?

There are three main types of ear infections — acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME). The symptoms for each of these types can vary.

Acute otitis media is the most common type of ear infection where parts of the middle ear become infected and swollen when fluid is trapped behind the eardrum. Children with AOM can experience:

• Ear pain – the area may be red, swollen, hot and painful to the touch

• Fever

• Fluid draining from the ear

• Difficulty with hearing/tracking sounds or with keeping balance

OME is known to occur after an ear infection has cleared up, but when there is fluid still trapped behind the eardrum.

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We value and respect our HERWriters' experiences, but everyone is different. Many of our writers are speaking from personal experience, and what's worked for them may not work for you. Their articles are not a substitute for medical advice, although we hope you can gain knowledge from their insight.

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