Boutonnière deformity (BD) affects the finger’s system of tendons. The tendons allow you to flex and straighten you finger. If you have BD, you cannot straighten your finger.

Tendons in Finger

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In BD, the tendon on the top of the finger (called central slip) is torn or cut from the other tendons. This creates a tear that resembles a buttonhole (or boutonnière in French). The middle joint is forced down, and the fingertip bends back. The tendons on this part of the finger are flat and thin. They are prone to injury. If you have BD in the thumb, it affects a joint called the metacarpophalangeal (MCP).

BD can be caused by:

  • Powerful blow to the bent finger
  • Cut to the finger’s central slip
  • Injury to the middle finger joint (called the proximal interphalangeal [PIP] joint)
  • Severe burn on the hand

Risk Factors

These factors increase your chance of developing BD:

Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors.



If you have any of these symptoms do not assume it is due to BD. These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. Tell your doctor if you have any of these:

  • Pain and swelling on the top of the finger’s middle joint (the PIP joint)
  • Inability to straighten finger at the middle joint—eventually leads to the deformity
  • Sign of injury (eg, fracture]]> or ]]>dislocation]]> ) to the PIP joint
  • Sign of injury (eg, fracture or dislocation) to the MCP joint



Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. She will also perform a physical exam, paying close attention to:

  • Muscle strength
  • Joint damage
  • Range of motion
  • Presence of swelling
  • Evidence of infection
  • Tenderness in the finger

An x-ray]]> may be done to see if you have a fracture.



Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:


Your doctor may recommend the following medications:

  • Corticosteroids—to reduce inflammation
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)—to reduce pain and inflammation

Nonsurgical Approaches

For milder cases, the treatment is nonsurgical and may involve:

  • Splinting
    • Applied to the middle joint to fully extend it
    • Used for 3-6 weeks
  • Stretching and strengthening exercises
  • Other techniques: massage]]> , ultrasound therapy, electrical stimulation

If your finger does not improve, you may need surgery.


Surgery is needed in severe cases. This may include when the tendon is cut or when the deformity has lasted a long time. Surgery generally does not return your finger to the way it was working before the injury. But, you may have some improvement. After surgery, you will have to do exercises to strengthen the finger.


To help reduce your chance of getting BD, take the following steps:

  • Wear the proper equipment when playing sports.
  • If you have rheumatoid arthritis, ask you doctor about ways to protect your joints.