(Coccyalgia; Coccygeal Pain; Coccygodynia; Pain, Tailbone; Pain, Coccygeal; Tailbone Pain)
Coccydynia is pain in the area of the coccyx, or tailbone. The coccyx is a small, curved, V-shaped bone at the bottom of the spine.
This condition is caused by an injury or stress that affects the tailbone, as well as the muscles and nerves surrounding it. Examples include:
- Fall or trauma
- Pressure and strain, as during childbirth
- Prolonged sitting on hard surfaces
- Spinal cyst or tumor
- Dislocation from injury or obesity]]> , which can cause bones to shift
- Repeated stress (eg, horseback riding, bicycling, motorcycle riding)
These factors increase your chance of developing coccydynia:
- Gender: female
- Brittle bones (eg, osteoporosis]]> , ]]>arthritis]]> )
- ]]>Low back pain]]>
- Participation in contact sports or certain activities (eg, horseback riding)
- Infections (eg, ]]>tuberculosis]]> , ]]>osteomyelitis]]> )
Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors.
If you have any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to coccydynia. These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. Tell your doctor if you have any of these:
- Sitting down
- Changing position from sitting to standing
- Moving bowels
- Having sex
- Tenderness directly over tailbone
- All-over backache
- Pain or spasm of pelvic muscles
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. He will do a physical exam, looking to see if the tailbone area is swollen, red, or warm. Tests may include:
- CT scan]]> —a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the body
- ]]>X-ray]]> —a test that uses radiation to take a picture of structures inside the body, especially bones
These tests can show if there is a ]]>fracture]]> or dislocation.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
- Bed rest
- Use of special pillows to sit on
- Sitz baths (which involves soaking hips and buttocks)
- Medication, including steroid injections, pain medications, stool softeners
- Manual realignment of spine
- Relief of pain by massage]]> of surrounding nerves
Physical therapy, involving:
- Strengthening of muscles in pelvic area
- Relief and stimulation with heat therapy and ultrasound therapy
American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons
Orthopedic Trauma Association
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Acetaminophen. EBSCO Publishing Patient Education Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16topicID=1034 . Updated February 2008. Accessed November 7, 2008.
Coccydynia (tailbone pain). Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/Coccydynia/hic_Coccydynia_Tailbone_Pain.aspx . Accessed November 7, 2008.
Coccydynia. EBSCO Publishing DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated April 2008. Accessed November 20, 2008.
Dressendorfer R. Coccydynia. EBSCO Publishing Rehabilitation Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16topicID=860 . Updated August 2008. Accessed November 20, 2008.
Ibuprofen. EBSCO Publishing Patient Education Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16topicID=1034 . Updated February 2008. Accessed November 2, 2008.
Naproxen. EBSCO Publishing Patient Education Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16topicID=1034 . Updated February 2008. Accessed November 7, 2008.
Stedman’s Medical Dictionary . 28th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005;403.
Last reviewed December 2008 by ]]>John C. Keel, MD]]>
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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