Conditions InDepth: Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Main Page | ]]>Risk Factors]]> | ]]>Symptoms]]> | ]]>Diagnosis]]> | ]]>Treatment]]> | ]]>Screening]]> | ]]>Reducing Your Risk]]> | ]]>Talking to Your Doctor]]> | ]]>Living With Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism]]> | ]]>Resource Guide]]>
]]>Alcohol abuse]]> is a disease characterized by a desire for alcohol and by the continuation of drinking even when there are alcohol-related occupational, legal, health, and family problems. Alcohol abuse can progress to alcoholism. Alcoholism is a condition in which a person becomes physically dependent on the effects of alcohol and drinks to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
Several factors contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, including:
- Brain chemicals that may be different than those normally found in the brain
- Social pressure
- Emotional stress
- ]]>Depression]]> and other mental health problems
- Problem drinking behaviors learned from family and friends
It's estimated that nearly 17.6 million people in the United States abuse alcohol or are considered to be alcoholics. More men than women are alcohol dependent or have alcohol problems. Alcohol problems are highest among young adults, age 18 to 29, and lowest among adults age 65 and older.
Risks Associated With Alcoholism
Organs That Can Be Damaged by Alcoholism
Alcoholism can increase your risk of the following:
- Accidents and injury, including motor vehicle accidents and falls
- Violence, murder, and suicide
- Domestic violence
- Family dysfunction
- Failed relationships
- Lost jobs
- Problems with the law, including drunk driving
- Drug interactions
- Certain cancers, especially cancer of the ]]>liver]]>, ]]>esophagus]]>, ]]>throat]]>, and ]]>larynx]]>
- Gastrointestinal problems (eg, bleeding, ]]>diarrhea]]> , ]]>hemorrhoids]]> , ]]>ulcers]]> , and inflammation of the esophagus)
- Nerve damage
- Sexual disorders, including ]]>impotence]]>
- Reproductive problems
- Postoperative complications (eg, infections, bleeding, and delayed healing)
- Other addictions
- Neurological problems and brain damage (in long-term use)
- Liver damage, including ]]>cirrhosis]]>
- Heart and circulatory problems
- ]]>High blood pressure]]>
- ]]>Pneumonia]]> and ]]>acute respiratory distress syndrome]]>
- ]]>Peripheral neuropathy]]>
- Hormonal problems in both sexes
- ]]>Fetal alcohol syndrome]]> (in the babies of women who drank during their pregnancy)
- Disorders of the immune system and increased risk of infection
]]>What are the risk factors for alcoholism?]]>
]]>What are the symptoms of alcoholism?]]>
]]>How is alcoholism diagnosed?]]>
]]>What are the treatments for alcoholism?]]>
]]>Are there screening tests for alcoholism]]> ?
]]>How can I reduce my risk of alcoholism?]]>
]]>What questions should I ask my healthcare provider?]]>
]]>What is it like to live with alcoholism?]]>
]]>Where can I get more information about alcoholism?]]>
Alcoholism. National Library of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/alcoholism.html
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
Carson RC, Butcher JN, Mineka S. Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life . 11th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon; 2000.
Grant BF, Dawson DA, Stinson FS, Chou SP, Dufour MC, Pickering RP. The 12-month prevalence and trends in DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence, United States, 1991-1992 and 2001-2002. Drug Alcohol Dependence. 2004;74:223-234. National Institute on Alcohol Ause and Alcoholism website. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh29-2/79-93.htm . Accessed April 15, 2007.
Last reviewed March 2009 by ]]>Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt, MD]]>
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