Diagnosis of Schizophrenia
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Before a diagnosis of ]]>schizophrenia]]> can be made, your doctor must rule out other illnesses. People can suffer severe mental symptoms and even psychosis due to underlying medical conditions that have not been detected.
It is often difficult to differentiate one mental disorder from another as many psychiatric illnesses share similar features and symptoms. Obtaining an early and accurate diagnosis is extremely important for patients
People who are diagnosed early are able to:
- Stabilize their symptoms
- Decrease the risk of suicide
- Decrease ]]>alcohol]]> and ]]>substance abuse]]>
- Reduce the chance of relapse and/or hospitalization
- Reduce the possibility of social conflict or isolation
Diagnosis includes the following:
- Initial evaluation—Your doctor will ask about your medical and family history and perform a physical examination.
- Blood and urine tests—Laboratory tests will be taken to rule possible medical causes of the symptoms. For example, commonly abused drugs (eg, amphetamines or ]]>cocaine]]>) may cause symptoms resembling ]]>bipolar disorder]]> or schizophrenia. Some metabolic illnesses or infections may also cause psychotic episodes. These drugs and conditions can be tested for in blood or urine samples.
- Psychiatric evaluation—A psychiatrist will conduct a psychiatric interview to evaluate you for any psychiatric disorders that could be causing your symptoms.
Diagnosis is often based on the criteria outlined in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). In order to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, there are several criteria that must be met including:
- You must have psychotic symptoms for at least six months and show increasing difficulty in functioning normally.
Carson RC, Butcher JN, Mineka S. Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life. 11th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon; 2000.
Keshavan MS, Roberts M, Wittmann D. Guidelines for clinical treatment of early course schizophrenia. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2006;8:329-334.
McCormick LM, Flaum M. Diagnosing schizophrenia circa 2005: how and why? Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2005;7:311-315.
National Alliance on Mental Illness website. Available at: http://www.nami.org/ .
National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/ .
Last reviewed March 2009 by ]]>Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt, MD]]>
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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