Increasingly, foods sold in the supermarkets come with health claims on the label. To name just a few, oatmeal and soy are said to help prevent heart disease, milk and calcium-fortified orange juice to fight osteoporosis, and folate-enriched flour to prevent birth defects. These are all “functional foods”—foods marketed as offering specific health benefits.

There are two main categories of functional foods. The first (and largest) category consists of ordinary foods that contain health-promoting substances. This category essentially includes all fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, soy and other legumes, and numerous other foods such as herbal teas, yogurt, and cold-water fish. When these foods are presented as functional foods, their specific health benefits and healthy constituents are highlighted, such as fiber, vitamins, minerals, and non-nutrient chemicals with potential health benefits. ]]>1]]>

The second category of functional foods consists of foods that have been enriched with a potentially health-promoting ingredient. Examples include margarines containing ]]>stanol esters]]> , orange juice enriched with ]]>calcium]]> and other nutrients, and beverages to which ]]>echinacea]]> and other herbs have been added.

Some of these functional food products are based on good, solid science. For others, however, the supporting evidence is weak or speculative. Furthermore, the requirement for good taste sometimes forces manufacturers to limit the amount of herbs and other additives to a level so low that they are unlikely to have any effect.

In the following table, we list some of the more promising functional foods, as well as natural products that are added to food products to create functional foods.

]]>Cancer prevention]]>]]>Diindolylemethane]]> (found in broccoli-family vegetables),
]]>Fish oil]]> (found in salmon and other cold-water fish)
]]>Flaxseed]]> (contains ]]>lignans]]> )
]]>Green tea]]>
]]>I3C]]> (found in broccoli-family vegetables)
]]>IP6]]> (found in nuts, seeds, beans, whole grains, cantaloupe, and citrus fruits)
]]>Lycopene]]> (found in tomatoes)
]]>Resveratrol]]> (found in grape skin)
]]>Soy foods]]>
]]>Turmeric]]> (added to many foods as a preservative)
]]>Vitamin C]]>
]]>Vitamin E]]>
]]>Cataracts]]>]]>Lutein]]> (found in dark-green vegetables)
Cavities]]>Xylitol]]> (added to chewing gum and candy)
]]>Colds and flus]]>]]>Echinacea]]> (herbal tea)
]]>Diabetes]]>]]>Chromium]]> (whole grains, brewer’s yeast, fortified nutritional yeast, liver)
]]>Evening primrose oil]]>
]]>Diarrhea]]>]]>Probiotics]]> (Friendly bacteria) (found in yogurt)
]]>Digestive problems]]>]]>Probiotics]]> (Friendly bacteria) (found in yogurt)
]]>Ear infections]]>]]>Xylitol]]> (added to chewing gum and candy)
]]>Easy bruising]]>]]>Bioflavonoids]]> (found in citrus fruits, buckwheat, and most fruits and vegetables)
]]>Eczema]]>]]>Probiotics]]> (Friendly bacteria) (found in yogurt)
]]>General nutrition]]>Fortified grains and beverages
]]>Heart disease prevention]]> Alpha-linolenic acid (found in ]]>flaxseed oil]]> )
]]>Calcium]]> (added to beverages; found in milk and other dairy products)
]]>Fish oil]]> (found in salmon and other cold-water fish)
]]>Potassium]]> (found in orange juice, bananas, and other foods)
]]>Soy products]]>
]]>Stanols/Sterols]]> (added to margarine and other spreads)
Fiber (oats, etc.)
Wine and other alcoholic beverages (in moderation)
]]>High cholesterol]]>Fiber (found in whole grains and fruits, legumes, and vegetables)
]]>Krill Oil]]>
]]>Soy products]]>
]]>Stanols]]> (added to margarine and other spreads)
]]>Menopausal symptoms]]>]]>Soy products]]>
]]>Nausea]]>]]>Ginger]]> (beverages)
]]>Osteoporosis]]>]]>Calcium]]> (added to beverages; found in milk and other dairy products)
]]>Vitamin D]]> (added to butter, milk, and other beverages)
]]>Soy foods]]>
]]>PMS]]>]]>Calcium]]> (added to beverages; found in milk and other dairy products)
]]>Krill Oil]]>
]]>Ulcerative colitis]]>]]>Probiotics]]> (Friendly bacteria) (found in yogurt)
]]>Urinary tract infections]]>]]>Cranberry juice]]>
]]>Vaginal infection]]>]]>Probiotics]]> (Friendly bacteria) (found in yogurt)

A Note About Labeling

The FDA allows labels on foods similar to those used on dietary supplements. These do not require very much scientific validation, and they formally state that the claims made are not approved by the FDA.

In some cases, however, the FDA has specifically authorized higher level health claims such as “heart healthy.” These claims may be taken as representing scientific consensus. Because this is such a rapidly growing field, an increasing number of these labels should be expected.