International Travel Information: Tuberculosis
]]>Tuberculosis]]> (TB) is a contagious disease that often affects the lungs. It is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Every year there are about nine million cases worldwide. If you are planning to travel abroad, how can you reduce your risk of TB?
What Is the Risk to Travelers?
If you are an international traveler, you may be at an increased risk for contracting TB because:
- You may be visiting countries where TB is prevalent.
- Your mode of transportation is a confined area (such as an airplane), where you may share air space with someone who has active TB.
The Stop TB Partnership lists the countries with the highest rates of TB. The top ten countries with the most cases are:
- South Africa
- Democratic Republic of Congo
How Is TB Transmitted?
When someone with active TB coughs, the bacteria are transmitted through the air and may be inhaled by people nearby. TB is more likely to spread from person-to-person in enclosed places because:
- Water droplets carrying the bacteria are more widely dispersed outdoors
- Ultraviolet radiation from the sun kills TB
Fortunately, exposure to TB bacteria does not automatically mean the disease will develop. If you have a normal immune system, your body's defenses will immediately build a "fortress" around the bacteria. This may keep TB dormant in your body for years, possibly a lifetime. If the bacteria remain inactive, a person is considered infected, but does not have active tuberculosis and cannot infect others.
TB becomes active and symptomatic when the immune system's fortress can no longer contain the growth of the bacteria. Usually, this happens when the immune system is weakened, due to certain conditions, such as poorly controlled diabetes, HIV, and cancer.
When TB becomes active in the lungs, the body begins to exhibit symptoms, such as:
- Severe cough lasting more than two weeks
- Pain in the chest
- Coughing up blood or sputum (mucus from deep inside the lungs)
- Weakness or fatigue
- Weight loss
- Night sweats
- Chills or fever
What Are the Testing Guidelines for Travelers?
Screening for TB infection is done with a skin test. In North America, the tuberculin skin test (often called PPD for purified protein derivative) is generally used. A small amount of testing fluid is injected into the skin in the lower part of the arm, and the reaction is measured 2-3 days later.
A positive reaction, characterized by a raised bump, indicates TB infection, but it does not diagnose active disease. A negative reaction indicates the absence of infection; however, if exposure was recent, it is recommended that another skin test be done 10-12 weeks after the time of exposure.
If you are staying one month or longer in countries where TB is prevalent, it is recommended that testing be done before and after exposure, with repeat testing if exposure continues.
What Is the Treatment?
If you are have a positive skin test results without symptoms, the drug ]]>isoniazid]]> may be prescribed for months of treatment.
A ]]>vaccine]]> for TB, called BCG, is available in many countries, but is not routinely used in the US.
Medicines for Active TB
If you have active TB, your treatment will most likely include a combination of medicines, such as:
For active pulmonary TB, you will need to isolate yourself during treatment from coworkers, friends, and family so as not to infect them.
What Kind of Protection Should You Choose?
There are no simple answers, but risk is lowest in the open air and in situations where your distance from a potentially infected person exceeds three feet. TB infection is quite unlikely if you are exposed for less than several hours—so casual contact with air containing TB bacteria is relatively safe (for example, being briefly in the immediate vicinity of a person who is coughing).
Long bus and train trips may pose some risk if one or more of your fellow passengers has active tuberculosis. It is probably wise to keep your distance from people who are actively coughing. In some countries, it is common to wear a surgical mask if you have a ]]>cold]]> or the ]]>flu]]>.
Remember that tuberculosis is not exclusively a respiratory disease. It can also be transmitted by unpasteurized milk and milk products. When traveling in regions where TB is common, avoid drinking of unpasteurized or uncooked milk and milk products.
In general, tuberculosis is not easily transmitted. But, international travelers should take preventive measures if they are at heightened risk of exposure.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Canadian Lung Association
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Tuberculosis in countries. Stop TB Partnership website. Available at: http://www.stoptb.org/countries/ . Accessed June 15, 2010.
Last reviewed June 2010 by ]]>Brian Randall, MD]]>
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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