Kids and Cholesterol: Keeping Cholesterol Under Control
]]>High cholesterol]]> is a health problem we often associate with adults, but children can also be affected. High cholesterol levels, along with other factors that put adults at risk for heart problems ( ]]>high blood pressure]]> , diabetes, lack of physical activity, being ]]>overweight or obese]]> , and smoking), also put children at risk later in life.
For instance, high cholesterol levels play a role in forming fatty plaque build-up in arteries, causing the arteries to harden. This condition, known as ]]>atherosclerosis]]> , can start in childhood. If not addressed, it can lead to ]]>coronary artery disease]]> in adulthood.
Should My Child Be Screened?
If your child is not overweight, eats a healthy diet, is physically active, and does not have a family history of high cholesterol or heart disease, chances are he may not need cholesterol screening. However, if high cholesterol levels run in your family or if you are not sure, talk to the doctor to see if your child should be screened.
There are two types of cholesterol often discussed: “good” cholesterol, also known as HDL cholesterol, and “bad” cholesterol, also called LDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is the main culprit of heart problems, so keeping levels low is important. For children, this means making sure that their LDL cholesterol level is less than 110 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter). Here are cholesterol level guidelines from the American Heart Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program:
LDL Cholesterol Levels in Children and Teens 2-19 Years Old
|Acceptable||less than 110 mg/dL|
|High||130 mg/dL or greater|
Total Cholesterol Levels (HDL + LDL Cholesterol) in Children and Teens 2-19 Years Old
|Acceptable||less than 170 mg/dL|
|High||200 mg/dL or greater|
Children older than eight years old who have very high LDL cholesterol levels, usually 190 mg/dL or greater, may be given medicines called statins . Statins work by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. A doctor may prescribe this medicine to your child if she has been diagnosed with familial hypercholesterolemia (an inherited condition in which a person is born with high levels of LDL cholesterol) and diet and exercise have not lowered the cholesterol levels enough.
Healthy Lifestyle Tips
Regardless of your child’s cholesterol levels, a proper diet and exercise are important to keep cholesterol levels under control, as well as maintain overall health. Here are some ways to incorporate a nutritious diet and physical activity into your child’s life:
- Eat plenty of ]]>fruits, vegetables]]> , and ]]>whole grains]]> . Children two years old and older should eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily.
- ]]>Choose lean meats.]]> Lean cuts of meat (beef, pork, lamb) include round, sirloin, tenderloin, and chuck. For poultry, the leanest choice is skinless, white breast meat. Be sure to include fish, beans (peas, dried beans, lentils), and tofu in meals as healthy alternatives to meat.
- Limit foods that are ]]>high in cholesterol]]> .
- Limit foods that are ]]>high in saturated or trans fat]]> .
- Consume nonfat or ]]>low-fat milk and dairy products]]> .
- When cooking, do not use solid fats. Instead, use vegetable oil. When it comes to buttering bread or corn-on-the-cob, use soft margarine.
- Avoid foods and drinks with a lot of sugar.
- Those muffins, donuts, and cupcakes on the grocery store shelf may not be the best snack option for your kids. Opt for healthy snacks, like fresh fruit, vegetables with low-fat dip, popcorn, and low-fat yogurt.
- Get out and play! Children should get plenty of exercise since this helps boost “good” cholesterol levels. Aim for at least an hour of physical activity a day for children two years old and older.
Children will often look to adults as lifestyle examples. Therefore, to encourage healthy habits, it is important that the entire family is involved in eating right and exercising. Doing so will ensure that both you and your children can lead healthy lives together.
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
American Heart Association. Children and cholesterol. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=211 . Updated April 3, 2008. Accessed April 10, 2010.
American Heart Association. Cholesterol and atherosclerosis in children. AHA scientific position. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4499 . Accessed April 10, 2010.
DynaMed Editors. Familial hypercholesterolemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated April 6, 2010. Accessed April 10, 2010.
Kids Health. Cholesterol and your child. Kids Health (Nemours) website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/nutrition_fit/nutrition/cholesterol.html. Updated March 2009. Accessed April 10, 2010.
Mayo Clinic. How meat and poultry fit in your healthy diet. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/food-and-nutrition/NU00202. Updated June 6, 2009. Accessed April 10, 2010.
Last reviewed April 2010 by ]]>Kari Kassir, MD]]>
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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