What Is Lactose?

Lactose is a type of carbohydrate found in milk and milk products. It is sometimes referred to as milk-sugar. Lactose is broken down in the small intestines by the enzyme lactase.

Why Should I Follow a Lactose-Controlled Diet?

If you are lactose intolerant, your body is unable to digest large amounts of lactose. Consuming lactose may result in symptoms such as gas, bloating, cramping, and ]]>diarrhea]]>. Reducing the amount of lactose in your diet will prevent or reduce these symptoms.

]]>Lactose intolerance]]> usually occurs when there is a shortage of the lactase enzyme. It can also occur with diseases or injuries that affect the small intestines.

Lactose-Controlled Diet Basics

The goal of this diet is to reduce any lactose-induced symptoms to a point where they are not bothersome. The amount of lactose that is tolerated will vary from person to person. You may find it helpful to keep a log of the foods that you eat and any symptoms that you have.

Common Sources of Lactose

Lactose is found in all dairy products. Some products contain more lactose than others. This carbohydrate can also be an ingredient in other types of food. To determine whether a food contains lactose, look for the following key words on the ingredient list:

  • Butter
  • Cheese
  • Cream
  • Dried milk
  • Lactose
  • Milk
  • Milk solids
  • Powdered milk
  • Whey

Lactose-Free Foods

The following foods generally contain no lactose:

  • Lactose-free milk (eg, Lactaid)
  • Broth-based soups
  • Soy, almond, and rice milk
  • Fish, beef, pork, lamb, and poultry prepared without dairy products
  • Tofu and tofu products prepared without dairy products
  • Bread, cereal, and crackers made without dairy products
  • Sorbet
  • Gelatin

Low Lactose Foods

The following foods contain only small amounts of lactose (2 grams or less per serving) and can often be tolerated in small amounts:

  • Aged cheese (eg, Swiss, Cheddar, Parmesan)—1-2 ounces
  • Cream cheese—2 tablespoons
  • Cottage cheese—½ cup
  • Orange sherbet—½ cup

Finding Your Level of Dairy Tolerance

Before cutting dairy products out completely, try cutting back. Milk is usually better tolerated in small amounts (4 ounces or less at a time) and when consumed with food. Cultured dairy products, such as yogurt and kefir, are often well-tolerated because they contain bacteria that help break down the lactose. Aged cheeses, such as cheddar and Swiss, which contain very low amounts of lactose, are also usually well-tolerated.

Alternatives to Milk

Alternatives to regular milk include lactose-reduced and lactose-free milk (eg, Lactaid). Lactase enzyme tablets can also be added to milk to reduce the lactose content. Non-dairy alternatives include soy milk and rice milk.

Nutritional Concerns

Dairy products are an excellent source of ]]>calcium]]>. Milk is also fortified with ]]>vitamin D]]>, which is necessary for your body to use calcium. If you cut back on or eliminate these products, be sure you are getting these nutrients elsewhere. Good sources of calcium include fortified orange juice, fortified breakfast cereals, fish canned with bones, and tofu. Good sources of vitamin D include salmon, mackerel, egg yolks, and sunlight.

Suggestions on Eating a Lactose-controlled Diet

  • Use a food log to pinpoint which foods are troublesome.
  • Make gradual changes to your diet and note the effects.
  • Try cutting down on portion sizes of lactose-containing foods.
  • Consume lactose-containing foods with other foods.
  • Read food labels for ingredients that may indicate the presence of lactose.
  • Look for Kosher food products labeled “Pareve.” This means they contain no dairy.
  • Try taking a lactase supplement before eating lactose-containing foods.
  • Work with a registered dietitian to create a diet that works for you.