Mild Cognitive Impairment
Mild cognitive impairment–amnestic type (MCI-AT) is mild, repeated memory loss. It lies between the normal memory loss of aging and the more serious conditions of dementia]]> and ]]>Alzheimer’s disease (AD)]]> . MCI-AT only involves problems with memory. Dementia and Alzheimer's involve loss of other cognitive abilities, such as:
- Making decisions
- Problems with confusion, language, and attention
People with MCI-AT who are over age 65 have a higher chance of developing dementia and Alzheimer's. However, many people with MCI-AT never develop these disorders. Some even revert to normal.
Some Areas of the Brain Affected by Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.
Risk factors include:
- Age: 65 and older
- Family history of MCI-AT, dementia, or Alzheimer's
- Medical conditions, such as high blood pressure]]> , heart disease, ]]>diabetes]]> , ]]>stroke]]> , head injury, ]]>depression]]> , ]]>anxiety]]> , infections
- Being overmedicated
- ]]>Substance abuse]]>
Research also suggests that these may be risk factors for MCI-AT:
- Lack of physical activity
- Lack of social contact
- Low educational level
- Excessive response to stress
- Poor nutrition and lack of vitamins
- Exposure to toxins
The main symptom is frequent, ongoing memory loss beyond what is normally expected for one’s age. That means having more than small lapses of memory. If you have MCI-AT, you may:
- Remember much less of what you have just read or seen than people who have only the normal memory changes of aging
- Take longer to recall information
The doctor will:
- Ask about your symptoms and medical history
- Perform a physical exam
- Perform tests to measure your cognitive skills, including memory
The doctor may also talk with family members and caregivers. If you have this condition, you should have your cognitive abilities tested regularly.
Treatment is focused:
- Preventing, or at least slowing down, further loss of memory and other cognitive abilities
- Preventing dementia and Alzheimer's disease
Researchers are currently studying the effects that several medications may have on slowing cognitive decline. These include:
The following are being studied as ways to reduce the risk of cognitive decline:
- Managing medical conditions that may lead to MCI-AT, especially high blood pressure
- Getting treatment for depression and hypothyroidism]]>
- Staying mentally active by doing things like memory exercises, crossword puzzles, reading, taking classes
- Getting regular exercise
- Participating in social activities
- ]]>Reducing stress]]>
- Getting help for emotional problems
- Eating a ]]>healthful diet]]>
National Institute on Aging
National Institute on Aging
Alzheimer Association of Canada
Seniors Canada On-line
Alzheimer’s disease education and referral center. Connections: News from the ADEAR Center 1999;8(2).
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DeKosky ST, Williamson JD, Fitzpatrick AL, et al. Ginko biloba for prebvention of dementia: a randomized controlled trila. JAMA. 2008;300:2306-2308.
Feldman HH, Jacova C. Mild cognitive impairment. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13:645-655.
Gauthier S, Reisberg B, Zaudig M, et al. Mild cognitive impairment. Lancet . 2006;367:1262-1270.
Institute for the Study of Aging and International Longevity Center–USA (March 2001). Achieving and Maintaining Cognitive Vitality With Aging: A Workshop Report . New York, NY.
National Institute on Aging. 2001-2002 Progress Report on Alzheimer’s Disease . July 2003.
Petersen RC, Smith GE, Waring SC, Ivnik RJ, Tangalos EG, Kokmen E. Mild cognitive impairment: clinical characterization and outcome. Archives of Neurology . 1999;56:303-308.
Petersen RC. Mild cognitive impairment: current research and clinical implications. Semin Neurol. 2007;27. Available at: http://www.medscape.comn/viewarticle/553257 . Accessed on March 23, 2007.
Last reviewed January 2009 by ]]>Rimas Lukas, MD]]>
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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