Diet is an essential part of treating gestational diabetes. You should get a copy of the American Diabetes Association book which contains valuable recommendations based on your weight and height. Some useful guidelines include:

  • Total daily caloric intake: about 2,000 to 2,200 calories
  • Diet composition: 40% carbohydrates, 20% protein, and 40% fat
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Limit intake of caffeine.
  • Increase fiber intake to avoid constipation.
  • Use noncaloric sweetener in moderation.
  • Create your diet plan with a dietitian.

Glucose Monitoring

Keeping track of your day-to-day blood glucose level is extremely important especially if you are being treated with insulin. Certain things you do can affect your blood glucose level, including eating and exercising. In addition, as your pregnancy progresses, the placenta releases more of the hormones that work against insulin. Keeping track of your blood glucose level will allow you and your doctor to determine what treatment, or combination of treatments, works best for you.

You can monitor your blood sugar level using a blood glucose monitoring kit. This includes a special device to obtain a drop of blood, which you then test to determine the blood glucose level. Your doctor will show you how to use the monitoring kit.

To obtain the drop of blood, you may use:

  • Lancet—a disposable, sharp needle-like sticking device
  • Lancet device—a spring-loaded finger sticking instrument

The drop of blood is applied to a chemically treated test strip. Some strips are read visually, meaning that you compare your strip against a color chart provided to determine blood sugar level. But more often, you will use a glucose meter—a device that reads the test strip and gives you a digital number value—to interpret your results.

If you are on insulin,you may need to test your blood about 4 times a day. Post meal blood sugar is a better predictor of diabetic complications. Therefore, your physician will ask you to monitor your blood sugar after eating a meal. Work with your doctor to determine what schedule is best for you.

Most kits provide a record diary so that you can keep track of your results. If not, your doctor may be able to provide you with one. Write down your results immediately—it is easy to forget the number. Always bring your record diary with you when you visit the doctor. Your blood glucose levels are a very important component to determining your treatment.

A noninvasive method to monitor blood sugar has been an active area of research for some time. Currently on the market, GlucoWatch Biographer is the only product available which monitors blood sugar on continuous basis.

Ketone Testing

You may be asked to test your urine for ketones. Ketones are produced when your body is breaking down fat, instead of carbohydrates, for energy. Large amounts of ketones in the body can lead to a condition called ketoacidosis, which can be harmful to both you and your developing baby.

When testing for ketones, it is important that you follow the directions carefully and exactly. The kit provides you with individual-use chemically treated strips. Pass the strip through the stream of urine or place it in a container of urine. Compare the strip against a color chart provided to determine if ketones are present.

The best time to conduct the test is in the morning before breakfast and any time your blood sugar is over 240 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) [13.3 mmol/L] on the blood glucose test.

Call your doctor if you have a positive result on the ketone test.