Prescription Drug Addiction
Prescription drug addiction is the compulsive seeking and overuse—despite harmful consequences—of prescription drugs. Addiction can sometimes be difficult to diagnose since patients with chronic pain often do need frequent pain medication, and physical dependence can occur with many drugs taken as prescribed. A drug-addicted body, however, requires the drug regularly to avoid withdrawal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and sweating) and to feel good.
Misuse of prescription drugs involves using a medication for a purpose other than which it was prescribed (eg, taking pain medication to aid sleep or ease anxiety]]> , rather than to treat pain). Physical dependence happens with many drugs, even non-addictive drugs, such as corticosteroids and beta-blockers, and is noticeable after a medication is stopped suddenly. Addiction is a much more severe physical dependence and brain disease, marked by an out-of-control need and craving, affecting relationships, and impacting social obligations (eg, work and school).
The most commonly abused prescription drugs are:
- Opioids—used to treat pain; examples include ]]>morphine]]> , ]]>codeine]]> , and ]]>oxycodone]]>
- Central nervous system depressants—used to treat anxiety and ]]>sleep disorders]]> ; examples include barbiturates and benzodiazepines
- Stimulants—used to treat ]]>narcolepsy]]> and ]]>attention deficit hyperactivity disorder]]> ; examples include ]]>dextroamphetamine]]> and ]]>methylphenidate]]>
The reasons people become addicted to prescription drugs, and begin to take them in a harmful and non-prescribed manner, are largely unknown. There is evidence that genetic factors may play a part. Anxiety, depression]]> , loneliness, and a history of ]]>alcoholism]]> are often associated with addiction. Peer pressure and personality traits can also play a role.
Researchers do know that the addicting drug causes changes in brain pathways and alters the way people feel about reward and a sense of well-being.
These factors increase your chance of developing this condition. Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors:
- Not following directions when taking prescription medications (beginning to misuse)
- Family or personal history of substance abuse
- Age: older than 65 or younger than 26
- Gender: female
The symptoms below are associated with prescription drug addiction. If you experience any one of them, see your physician.
- Rapid increase in the amount of medication needed
- Moving from one doctor to another for additional prescriptions
- Craving the medication
- Inability to stop or limit medication use
- Withdrawal symptoms associated with stopping the medication (eg, anxiety, sweating, nausea and vomiting, goose bumps on the skin, dilated pupils)
- Using significant effort to acquire the medication
- Medication use that interferes with activities
- Compulsive use of the medication despite adverse effects
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. He will ask you specific questions about your prescription medication use, such as how long you have been using the medication and how often you use it.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Addictions can be treated effectively through detoxification and counseling]]> . Treatment will depend on the type of drug you use and your specific needs.
Treatment options include the following:
This involves managing the symptoms of withdrawal while the abused medication leaves your system. Tapering slowly off the drug and keeping your blood pressure and heart rhythms under control are of important, since the symptoms of withdrawal can be life-threatening. Other medications are often introduced to counteract the effects of addiction and withdrawal symptoms. This should be done under the supervision of a doctor in a hospital or other outpatient setting. It is then followed by other therapies or medications to avoid relapse.
Behavioral therapies can help people who are addicted to prescription drugs stop using the drug, learn to function without it, handle cravings, and avoid situations in which relapse is likely. Behavioral therapy may include individual, group, or family counseling.
Beyond addiction, medications to treat underlying issues, such as depression or anxiety, may be needed to lead a full and productive life and avoid relapse.
To reduce your chance of developing a prescription drug addiction, take the following steps:
- Carefully follow directions.
- Be aware of potential interactions with other drugs.
- Talk with your doctor before changing the dose.
- Never use another person's prescription.
- Tell your doctor all the medications you are taking. This includes over-the-counter medications and dietary and herbal supplements.
American Council for Drug Education
National Institute on Drug Abuse
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
The Council on Drug Abuse
Drug addiction. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-addiction/DS00183/DSECTION=3 . Accessed May 22, 2008.
Pain pill addiction: what’s the risk? Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/pain-pill-addiction/PN00056 . Accessed May 22, 2008.
Prescription drugs: abuse and addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.nida.nih.gov/ResearchReports/Prescription/prescription.html. Accessed May 22, 2008.
Last reviewed January 2009 by ]]>Theodor B. Rais, MD]]>
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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