Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurologic disorder. It is characterized by:

  • Unpleasant sensations in the legs
  • An irresistible urge to move your legs

The sensations are typically worse during periods of inactivity and usually strongest at night. The symptoms are improved with activity. For this reason, people with RLS generally have insomnia]]> , which may be severe.

Restless Legs Syndrome

Restless Leg Syndrome
© 2009 Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.



The exact cause is unknown. RLS may occur for no identifiable reason. This is called primary RLS. Or, it may be caused by other conditions or certain drugs. This is called secondary RLS.

Many people with RLS also have periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). This is a related motor disorder characterized by:

  • Involuntary, repetitive, jerking movements
  • Interrupted sleep because of movement

Risk Factors

These factors increase your chance of developing RLS. Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors:



Symptoms may include:

  • Feelings of tingling, creeping, pulling, prickling, "pins and needles," or pain in the legs during periods of rest or inactivity—may also be this feeling in the arms.
  • Symptoms typically get worse at night
  • A strong urge to relieve these uncomfortable feelings with movement
  • Restlessness, including floor pacing, tossing and turning in bed, and rubbing the legs
  • Difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep
  • Hypersomnia—recurrent episodes of excessive daytime sleepiness or prolonged nighttime sleep

Symptoms may begin at any age. But, they are most common in people older than 60 years old. Symptoms usually increase in the evening and during times of rest, relaxation, or inactivity.


The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. She will also do a physical and neurologic exam. The diagnosis is based mainly on your symptoms. There is no specific test for RLS. But, tests to check for conditions that may trigger RLS include:

  • Blood tests to check iron levels and the functioning of the kidneys
  • Monitoring of leg activity during sleep ("sleep study", polysomnogram [PSG])
  • Study of leg muscles, such as electromyography (EMG)]]> and ]]>nerve conduction studies]]>

Nerves of the Leg

Leg Nerves
© 2009 Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.



There is no cure for RLS. Treatments are aimed at relieving or reducing symptoms.

Treatment for Mild Cases of RLS


  • Massage your legs.
  • Use a heating pad or ice pack.
  • Take a hot bath.
  • Talk to your doctor about taking supplements that might be helpful, such as:
  • Refrain from using tobacco, alcohol, or caffeine.
  • Follow a sleep routine.
  • Begin a safe ]]>exercise program]]> with the advice of your doctor.
  • Avoid the use of medications that may worsen RLS.

Treatment for Conditions That May Trigger RLS

Effective treatment of conditions that may trigger RLS can ease or even eliminate symptoms:

Treatment for Severe Cases of RLS


Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation

During this treatment, electric stimulation is done to the affected area of the leg. This is usually done 15-30 minutes before bedtime to help reduce leg jerking.


There are no guidelines for preventing RLS.