Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
The more risk factors you have for metabolic syndrome, the greater your likelihood of developing it. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your healthcare provider what you can do to reduce your risk. People with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of ]]>heart disease]]> , ]]>stroke]]> , and ]]>type 2 diabetes]]> .
Metabolic syndrome is believed to be due to a combination of genetic factors (ie, health factors that you inherited from your family) and environmental factors (including lifestyle choices that you make, such as the foods you eat and your level of physical activity).
These genetic and/or environmental factors include:
Age—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with age.
- Among those ages 40 and up, 40% have metabolic syndrome
- Gender—African American women has an increased risk (5 fold) than men. Mexican American women have an increased risk (3 fold) than men.
- Socioeconomic status—Lower income families have a higher risk.
- You are more likely to develop many of the underlying conditions of metabolic syndrome if you are overweight and if that extra weight is found around your waist, giving you an apple-shaped body.
- Fat distribution around the waist is a better guide than body mass index (BMI)—a measure of your weight in relation to your height that determines if you are overweight—in determining whether you will develop metabolic syndrome.
Genes—Having a family history of some of these disorders may increase your chances of developing metabolic syndrome:
- Type 2 diabetes
- ]]>High blood pressure]]>
- Unhealthy cholesterol levels
- ]]>Coronary heart disease]]> —a heart condition where the arteries that supply blood to the heart narrow, increasing the chances of a heart attack
- ]]>Polycystic ovary syndrome]]>—a hormonal disorder that occurs when a woman produces an excess of male hormones
- Diabetes—This is a condition in which your body either cannot produce insulin (a hormone that regulates sugar in your body) or cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
- High blood pressure
Unhealthy cholesterol levels
- Elevated triglycerides—a kind of fat found in your blood
- Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels—often referred to as “good cholesterol,” breaks down and removes cholesterol from the body
- Ethnicity —The highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome is found in Mexican Americans (approximately 32%), particularly Mexican American women, Caucasians (approximately 24%), and African Americans (approximately 22%).
- Physical inactivity
- Poor diet—Consuming a diet high in calories, sugar, saturated fats, and starchy foods (eg, bread, cereal, rice, pasta, potatoes), and low in dietary ]]>fiber]]> increases your risk. If you're a soda drinker, you may have switched to diet brand thinking that it is a healthier choice. However, there is evidence that drinking a lot of dietsoda may even increase your risk of metabolic syndrome.]]>*¹]]>
- Unhealthy habits (eg, ]]>smoking]]>)
Deen D. Metabolic Syndrome: time for action. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:2875-2882.
Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA. 2002;287:356-359.
Gami AS, Witt BJ, Howard DE, et al: Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular events and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:403-414.
Getting tough with metabolic syndrome. Post Grad website. Available at: http://www.postgradmed.com/issues/2004/01_04/metabolic_foldout.pdf . Accessed July 28, 2005.
Grundy SM. Metabolic syndrome: a multiplex cardiovascular risk factor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:399-404.
Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome. Circulation. 2005;112:e285-e290.
Metabolic syndrome. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4756 . Accessed July 28, 2005.
Metabolic syndrome. The Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/3000/3057.asp?index=10783 . Accessed July 28, 2005.
Metabolic syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated May 2009. Accessed May 18, 2009.
Metabolic syndrome. The Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?id=DS00522 . Accessed July 28, 2005.
Statistical fact sheet—risk factors: Metabolic syndrome—statistics. American Heart Association website. http://www.americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1081492779297FS15META4.pdf . Accessed July 28, 2005.
Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III): Executive Summary. National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atp3xsum.pdf . Accessed August 1, 2005.
Weiss R. Dziura J, Burgert TS, et al. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2362-2374.
*¹5/11/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, Wang Y, Lima JA, Michos ED, Jacobs DR. Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care. 2009;32:688-694.
Last reviewed February 2009 by ]]>David Juan, MD]]>
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © 2007 EBSCO Publishing All rights reserved.