Sexual Dysfunction in Women
• Antidepressant-induced Sexual Dysfunction, Female Sexual Arousal Disorder, Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder, Low Libido in Women
• Combination Herb/Supplement Therapies, ]]>Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)]]>, ]]>Diindolylmethane (DIM)]]>, ]]>Horny goat weed]]>, ]]>Maca]]>, ]]>Molybdenum]]>, ]]>Rhodiola rosea]]>, Topical Treatment Containing ]]>GLA]]>, ]]>Vitamin C]]>
• ]]>Ginkgo biloba]]>
Although male sexual problems have long been the subject of intensive medical research, the equivalent problems in women have received relatively little attention until recently. The tremendous commercial success of the drug Viagra has lately prompted pharmaceutical companies to focus attention on finding a comparable treatment for women.
Loss of libido, painful intercourse, and difficulty achieving orgasm trouble many women. In most cases, the cause is unknown. Possible identifiable causes include side effects from drugs such as antidepressants or sedatives, hormonal insufficiency, or adrenal insufficiency.
Current conventional treatments for sexual dysfunction in women are limited, except when a simple fixable cause is present (such as use of an antidepressant in the SSRI category).
Proposed Natural Treatments
Although there is no good evidence for natural treatments for sexual dysfunction, several substances have shown promising results in preliminary trials. These include DHEA, yohimbine, and arginine.
Some evidence suggests that the hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may be helpful for improving sexual function in older women, but not in younger women.
DHEA is produced by the adrenal glands. Levels of DHEA decline naturally with age and fall precipitately in cases of adrenal failure. Because both elderly people and those with adrenal insufficiency report a drop in libido, several studies have examined whether supplemental DHEA can increase libido in these groups.
A 12-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled]]> trial evaluated the effects of DHEA (50 mg daily) in 280 individuals between the ages of 60 and 79. ]]>1]]> The results showed that women over age 70 experienced an improvement in libido and sexual satisfaction. No benefits were seen in younger women. Two other trials did not find benefit, but they enrolled much fewer people and ran for a shorter period of time. ]]>2,3]]>
In addition, two small double-blind, placebo-controlled studies tested whether a one-time dose of DHEA at 300 mg could increase ease of sexual arousal in pre- or postmenopausal women respectively. ]]>24,25]]> The results again indicate that DHEA is effective for older women but not for younger women.
One 4-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 24 women with adrenal failure found that 50 mg per day of DHEA (along with standard treatment for adrenal failure) improved libido and sexual satisfaction. ]]>4]]> DHEA is not usually prescribed to individuals with adrenal failure, but this study suggests that it should be.
For more information, including dosage and safety issues, see the full ]]>DHEA]]> article.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated a combination therapy containing the amino acid ]]>arginine]]> ; the herbs ]]>ginseng]]> , ]]>ginkgo]]> , and ]]>damiana]]> ; and multivitamins and minerals. ]]>20]]> Researchers enrolled a total of 77 women between the ages of 22 and 71 years and followed them for 4 weeks. All participants complained of poor sexual function. The results showed superior sexual satisfaction scores in the treatment group compared to the placebo group. Some of the specific benefits seen included enhanced libido, increased frequency of intercourse and orgasm, greater vaginal lubrication, and augmented clitoral sensation. A larger followup study performed by the same research group also reported benefits. ]]>32]]> However, confirmation by an independent research group will be necessary before these results can be taken as reliable.
Yohimbine is a drug derived from the bark of the ]]>yohimbe]]> tree. Studies have only used the standardized drug, not the actual herb. One small double-blind, ]]>crossover]]> study of yohimbine combined with ]]>arginine]]> found an increase in measured physical arousal among 23 women with female sexual arousal disorder as compared to placebo. ]]>21]]> However, the women themselves did not report any noticeable effects. Only the combination of yohimbine and arginine produced results; neither substance was effective when taken on its own.
An open trial of yohimbine alone to treat sexual dysfunction induced by the antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac) found improvement in 8 out of 9 people, 2 of whom were women. ]]>22]]> However, in the absence of a placebo group, these results can't be taken as reliable; in addition, there are concerns about the safety of combining yohimbe with antidepressants.
Note : ]]>Yohimbine]]> and the herb yohimbe are relatively dangerous substances in general. They should only be used under physician supervision.
The other constituents used in these combination therapies may also present some risks (see the full articles for safety issues).
A very small double-blind trial reported that a proprietary topical treatment containing ]]>GLA]]> and a variety of additional supplements and herbs improved sexual function in woman with female sexual arousal disorder. ]]>28]]>
A highly preliminary study has been used to claim that the herb ephedra is helpful for women with sexual dysfunction. ]]>26]]> However, this trial was very small, enrolled women without sexual problems, and only examined sexual responsiveness to visual stimuli. In another study, ephedrine improved female sexual dysfunction caused by SSRI antidepressants, but so did placebo, and there was no significant difference between the benefits seen with the two treatments. ]]>30]]>Note : There are serious health risks associated with ephedra. For this reason, we do not recommend that women with sexual dysfunction use ephedra. For more information on the health risks of this herb, see the full ]]>Ephedra]]> article.
Numerous case reports and uncontrolled studies raised hopes that the herb Ginkgo biloba might be an effective treatment for sexual dysfunction, particularly as a result of antidepressant medication. ]]>13-17]]> However, the results of a number of double-blind studies (see ]]>Why Does this Database Rely on Double-blind Studies?]]> ) indicate that ginkgo is no more effective than placebo, whether or not subjects are taking antidepressants. ]]>27,31,33]]>
Other treatments often proposed for treating female sexual dysfunction, but that lack any meaningful supporting evidence, include ]]>horny goat weed]]> , ]]>maca]]> , ]]>molybdenum]]> , ]]>diindolylmethane (DIM)]]> and ]]>Rhodiola rosea]]> .
15. Cohen A, Bartlik B. Treatment of sexual dysfunction with Ginkgo biloba extract [scientific reports]. Presented at: 150th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; May 18-21, 1997; San Diego, CA.
16. Cohen A. Treatment of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction with Ginkgo biloba extract (abstract #716). Presented at: 149th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; May 5-8, 1996; New York, NY.
17. Cohen A. Long-term safety and efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Available at: http://www.priory.com/pharmol/gingko . Accessed June 15, 1997
28. Ferguson DM, Singh GS, Steidle CP, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover design trial of the efficacy and safety of Zestra for women in women with and without female sexual arousal disorder. J SexMarital Ther . 2003;29(Suppl 1):33-44.
32. Ito TY, Polan ML, Whipple B, et al. The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritional supplement, among women differing in menopausal status. J Sex Marital Ther . 2006;32:369-378.
Last reviewed April 2009 by EBSCO CAM Review Board]]>
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