Staying in Shape as You Age
Will you be hale and hearty in your golden years or dependent on others? The answer greatly depends on how physically active you are.
Many older Americans do not get enough exercise to maintain good health. This presents a problem as the normal aging process slowly takes its toll. With each passing decade after age 50, we lose muscle strength and heart function. These losses come from a combination of factors like poor nutrition, hormone changes, and declining muscle and nerve cells. But the main cause of dwindling independence as we age is usually a sedentary lifestyle.
The good news is that —no matter what age you are—you can still make gains in cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness. So, it is never too late to start reaping the rewards of more exercise.
Many Benefits From Exercise
At any age or level of ability our bodies need regular physical activity to function well. Here are just a few of the major benefits of exercise:
- Increased muscle mass, strength, and flexibility
- Lower body fat, especially in the abdomen
- Higher metabolic rate and less tendency to gain weight
- Improved ability to do everyday tasks, like lifting or cleaning
- Better balance and less risk of falls or ]]>fractures]]>
- Increased joint mobility and less arthritic pain
Decreased risk of many chronic diseases, including:
- ]]>Heart disease]]> (better heart function and cholesterol levels)
- ]]>High blood pressure]]> (improved blood pressure readings)
- ]]>Diabetes mellitus]]> (greater sensitivity to insulin)
- ]]>Depression]]> (reduced fatigue and better mood)
- Memory problems
- ]]>Osteoporosis]]> (increased bone density)
- ]]>Cancer]]> (lower risk of some types)
- Increased longevity (decreased death rate from all causes)
- Improved quality of life (greater self-sufficiency and independence)
Recommendations for Getting Fit
Exactly how much exercise do older adults need to achieve good health? The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA) make the following general recommendations on the types and amounts of exercise for healthy adults aged 65 and older:
- Do moderately-intense exercise (raises your heart rate, but you are still able to have a conversation) for 30 minutes a day for five days out of the week, or do more vigorous exercise for 20 minutes a day for three days out of the week
- Do strength training exercise twice a week—8-10 exercises, 10-15 repetitions
- Do balance exercises if you at an increased risk of falling
- Create a physical activity plan
ACSM points out that to lose weight you will need to get 60-90 minutes of exercise.
Precautions Before You Begin
Since physical activities can stress your body and heart, ]]>check with your doctor]]> before starting a program. For sedentary or minimally active older adults who plan to start a vigorous exercise program, some experts advise an exercise stress test. But, many doctors reserve exercise tests for people with chest pain or major risk factors for heart disease.
Besides getting your doctor’s advice, it is wise to do what you can to guard against injury. Here are some simple safety measures you can take while exercising:
- Start slowly, gradually increasing your time and intensity. Experts generally recommend a low-to-moderate level of low-impact exercise, such as walking, biking, or swimming for older adults.
- Do low-intensity warm-up and cool-down activities, as well as stretching both before and after exercise. This allows time for your body to adjust. It also helps prevent your blood pressure from dropping, which can happen if you suddenly stop exercising.
- Pace yourself so you can still talk comfortably during exercise. Or learn to check your pulse rate.
- Drink plenty of fluids before, during, and after exercising.
- Stop your activity and consult a doctor immediately if you have chest pain or pressure, dizziness, nausea, abnormal heartbeats, trouble with breathing or balance, or other unusual symptoms.
If you take sensible precautions to avoid injury, exercise can give you the strength and energy to do the things you enjoy as you age.
American Heart Association
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute
Healthy Living Unit
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Last reviewed May 2010 by ]]>Brian Randall, MD]]>
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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