Umbilical cord prolapse is a condition during the last stages of pregnancy in which the umbilical cord descends into the vagina prematurely—most often after the membranes have ruptured and the baby moves into the birth canal for delivery.

As the baby passes through the vagina during delivery, it puts pressure on the cord, which can decrease or cut off the infant’s blood supply.

Umbilical cord prolapse is a very dangerous condition that can cause stillbirth unless the baby is delivered quickly, usually by cesarean section]]> , after the condition is diagnosed. Other complications include brain damage from lack of oxygen. Most babies delivered quickly through cesarean section don’t suffer from complications caused by this condition.

Umbilical cord prolapse is relatively common, occurring in one in every 300 births.

Umbilical Cord Prolapse

Prolapsed Umbilical cord
© 2009 Nucleus Medical Art, Inc.



The most common cause of umbilical cord prolapse is the premature rupturing of the membranes containing amniotic fluid. Other common causes include:

  • Premature delivery]]>
  • Multiple births (twins, triplets, etc.)
  • Excessive amounts of amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios)
  • Breech delivery (feet first)
  • Abnormally long umbilical cord

Risk Factors

A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.

The following factors increase your chance of developing umbilical cord prolapse:

  • Having a baby that is in the breech position
  • Premature rupture of the membranes
  • Multiple births in one pregnancy—the second baby delivered is at greater risk
  • Having an unusually long umbilical cord
  • Too much amniotic fluid in the membranes
  • Rupturing the membranes to induce or speed up labor


The symptoms of umbilical cord prolapse include seeing or feeling the umbilical cord in the vagina prior to the baby's delivery. Low heart rate of less than 120 beats per minute is also a symptom that the baby is in distress from umbilical cord prolapse.


Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical and pelvic exam.

Tests may include the following:

  • Heart rate monitoring of the mother and baby
  • Pelvic examination to see and feel the umbilical cord present in the vagina


Treatment options include:

Cesarean Section

If the baby can’t be quickly delivered without risk of insufficient oxygen, then the baby will be delivered by cesarean section.

Cesarean Delivery

Cesarean Delivery
© 2009 Nucleus Medical Art, Inc.

Removing Pressure From the Cord

In some cases, the doctor may be able to move the baby away from the cord so as not to disrupt oxygen supply to the baby. The mother may also be asked to move into a position that removes pressure from the cord and protects the baby.

Rapid Delivery

If the mother is ready to deliver, the doctor may try to deliver the baby very quickly using forceps or a vacuum extractor.


Umbilical cord prolapse is difficult to prevent, but if you have risk factors, talk to your doctor about cesarean section and other ways to help prevent the risk of umbilical cord prolapse.