• Alpha Tocopherol, D-Tocopherol, DL-Tocopherol, DL-Alpha-Tocopherol, Tocopheryl Succinate, Tocopheryl Acetate, D-Alpha-Tocopherol, D-Delta-Tocopherol, D-Beta-Tocopherol, D-Gamma-Tocopherol, Mixed Tocopherols
• ]]>Prostate Cancer (Prevention)]]>
• ]]>Acute Anterior Uveitis]]> (in Combination With ]]>Vitamin C]]> ) , ]]>Alzheimer's Disease]]>, ]]>Cataracts]]>, ]]>Deep Venous Thrombosis (Prevention)]]>, ]]>Diabetic Neuropathy and Other Complications of Diabetes]]>, ]]>Diabetic Neuropathy]]>, ]]>Epilepsy]]>, ]]>Immune Support]]>, ]]>Macular Degeneration]]>, ]]>Male Infertility]]>, ]]>Menopausal Symptoms]]>, ]]>Menstrual Pain]]>, ]]>Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)]]>, ]]>Preeclampsia (Prevention)]]>, ]]>Restless Legs Syndrome]]>, ]]>Rheumatoid Arthritis]]>, ]]>Sports Performance]]>, ]]>Tardive Dyskinesia]]>, ]]>Vascular Dementia]]>
• ]]>Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis]]>, ]]>Cancer Prevention]]> (Other Than Prostate Cancer) , ]]>Cataract Prevention]]>, ]]>Congestive Heart Failure]]>, ]]>Diabetes (Prevention)]]>, ]]>Fibrocystic Breast Disease]]>, ]]>Heart Disease (Prevention)]]>, ]]>HIV Support]]>, Kidney Damage in ]]>Diabetes]]>, ]]>Macular Degeneration]]>, ]]>Osteoarthritis]]>, ]]>Parkinson's Disease]]>
Vitamin E is an ]]>antioxidant]]> that fights damaging natural substances known as free radicals. It works in lipids (fats and oils), which makes it complementary to vitamin C, which fights free radicals dissolved in water. As an antioxidant, vitamin E has been widely advocated for preventing heart disease and cancer. However, the results of large, well-designed trials have generally not been encouraging. Many other proposed benefits of vitamin E have also failed to stand up in studies. There are no medicinal uses for vitamin E with solid scientific support.
Vitamin E dosage recommendations are a bit complex because the vitamin exists in many forms.
New vitamin E recommendations are in milligrams of alpha-tocopherol. Alpha-tocopherol can come from either natural vitamin E (called, somewhat incorrectly, d-alpha-tocopherol) or synthetic vitamin E (called, also somewhat incorrectly, dl-alpha-tocopherol). However, much of the alpha-tocopherol in synthetic vitamin E is inactive. For this reason, you have to take about twice as much of it to get the same effect. 1-3]]>
There are other forms of vitamin E as well, such as beta-, delta-, and gamma-tocopherols, all of which occur in food. These other forms may be important; for example, preliminary evidence hints that gamma-tocopherol may be the most important (or, perhaps, the only) form of vitamin E for preventing prostate cancer. ]]>4,211]]> On this basis, it has been suggested that the best vitamin E supplement would be a mixture of all these. ]]>5-7]]>
To make matters even more confusing, vitamin E dosages are commonly listed on labels as international units (IU). Here's how you make the conversion. One IU natural vitamin E equals 0.67 mg alpha-tocopherol; one IU synthetic vitamin E equals 0.45 mg alpha-tocopherol. Therefore, to meet the new dietary recommendations for vitamin E (15 mg per day), you need to get either 22 IU natural vitamin E (22 IU x 0.67 = 15 mg) or 33 IU synthetic vitamin E (33 IU x 0.45 = 15 mg). The official US and Canadian recommendations for daily intake of vitamin E are as follows:
- 0-6 months: 4 mg
- 7-12 months: 5 mg
- 1-3 years: 6 mg
- 4-8 years: 7 mg
- 9-13 years: 11 mg
- Males and Females
- 14 years and older: 15 mg
- Pregnant Women : 15 mg
- Nursing Women : 19 mg
In developed countries, mild dietary deficiency of vitamin E is relatively common. ]]>8-10]]>
The best food sources of vitamin E are polyunsaturated vegetable oils, seeds, nuts, and whole grains. To get a therapeutic dosage, though, you need to take a supplement.
The optimal therapeutic dosage of vitamin E has not been established. Most studies have used between 50 IU and 800 IU daily, and some have used even higher doses. This would correspond to about 50 mg to 800 mg of synthetic vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol), or 25 mg to 400 mg of natural vitamin E (d-alpha- or mixed tocopherols).
If you wish to purchase natural vitamin E, look for a label that says "mixed tocopherols." However, some manufacturers use this term to mean the synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol, so you need to read the contents closely. Natural tocopherols come as d-alpha-, d-gamma-, d-delta-, and d-beta-tocopherol.
Observational]]> studies raised hopes that vitamin E supplements could help prevent various forms of ]]>cancer]]> as well as ]]>heart disease]]> . ]]>82-84,86,104-107,144,145]]> However, observational studies are notoriously unreliable for determining the effectiveness of treatments. Only ]]>double-blind]]> trials can do that (for information why, see ]]>Why Does This Database Rely on Double-blind Studies?]]> ), and such studies have, on balance, found vitamin E ineffective for preventing heart disease or any common form of cancer other than, possibly, prostate cancer. ]]>75-78,81,96-102,146,155,157-159,180-182,201]]> . In fact, use of high-dose vitamin E for a long period might slightly increase death rate. ]]>177,210]]>
Other potential uses of vitamin E have limited supporting evidence.
Intriguing but far from definitive studies suggest that vitamin E might improve ]]>immune response]]> to vaccinations, ]]>42]]> decrease symptoms of ]]>menstrual pain]]> , ]]>139,183]]> reduce symptoms of ]]>premenstrual syndrome (PMS)]]> , ]]>61,62]]> control symptoms of ]]>restless legs syndrome]]> , ]]>59]]> and help prevent ]]>deep venous thrombosis (DVTs)]]> . ]]>213]]>
Although preliminary studies hinted that use of vitamin E might prevent or slow the progression of ]]>cataracts]]> , ]]>51-54]]> in a 10-year study of almost 40,000 female healthcare professionals, use of natural vitamin E at a dose of 600 mg every other day failed to have any effect on cataract development. ]]>216]]>
Evidence regarding whether vitamin E can slow the progression of ]]>Alzheimer's disease]]> is inconsistent. ]]>43,184]]> A very large study failed to find vitamin E helpful for preventing mental decline (resulting from any cause) in women over 65. ]]>209]]>
Vitamin E has also shown equivocal promise in diabetes. One double-blind trial found benefits for ]]>cardiac autonomic neuropathy]]> , ]]>40]]> a complication of diabetes. Weaker evidence hints at possible benefits for ]]>diabetic peripheral neuropathy]]> . ]]>46,47]]> However, the best-designed study of all, a long-term trial involving 3,654 people with diabetes, found that use of vitamin E did not protect against diabetes-induced kidney or heart damage. ]]>157]]> Similarly, while a few studies performed by one research group suggested that vitamin E might be helpful for improving glucose control in people with diabetes, ]]>55-57]]> subsequent evidence found that the benefits, if they exist at all, are limited to the short-term. ]]>169,187]]> In addition, in an extremely large double-blind study, use of vitamin E at a dose of 600 IU every other day failed to reduce risk of participants developing type 2 diabetes. 202 Finally, a study unexpectedly found that when people with diabetes took 500 mg of vitamin E daily (either as natural alpha tocopherol or a mixture of alpha and gamma tocopherol), their blood pressure increased . ]]>208]]>
A small double-blind study conducted in Iran reported that vitamin E (400 IU daily) was more effective than placebo for treating ]]>menopausal hot flashes]]> . ]]>212]]> However, a larger US study failed to find vitamin E significantly helpful for hot flashes associated with breast cancer treatment. ]]>74]]>
Vitamin E might help reduce the lung-related side effects caused by the drug amiodarone (used to prevent abnormal heart rhythms). ]]>66]]>
Studies have yielded mixed results on whether vitamin E is helpful for controlling seizures in people with ]]>epilepsy]]> , ]]>160-163]]> reducing symptoms of ]]>tardive dyskinesia]]> , ]]>29-33]]> aiding ]]>recovery during heavy exercise]]> , ]]>63,64,65,170]]> and treating ]]>male infertility]]> . ]]>49,50]]>
When combined with ]]>vitamin C]]> , vitamin E may protect against sunburn to a small extent. ]]>34-38]]> The same combination has also shown promise for ]]>acute anterior uveitis]]> . ]]>39]]> A separate study failed to find vitamin E alone (at the high dose of 1,600 mg daily) helpful for macular edema (swelling of the center of the retina) associated with uveitis. ]]>188]]>
Vitamin E has been tried for ]]>amyotrophic lateral sclerosis]]> (Lou Gehrig's disease), but the results in the first reported double-blind study showed questionable benefits if any. ]]>137]]> Some vitamin E proponents felt that the dose of vitamin E used in this study might have been too low. Accordingly, they conducted another study using 10 times the dose, this one lasting 18 months and enrolling 160 people. ]]>171]]> Once again, vitamin E failed to prove significantly more effective than placebo.
In one observational study, high intake of vitamin E was linked to decreased risk of progression to AIDS in people with ]]>HIV]]> infection. ]]>67]]> However, a double-blind study of 49 people with HIV who took combined vitamins C and E or placebo for 3 months did not show any significant effects on the amount of HIV virus detected or the number of opportunistic infections. ]]>68]]> It has been suggested that vitamin E may enhance the antiviral effects of AZT, but evidence for this is minimal. ]]>69]]>
Vitamin E has been suggested for preventing the cardiac toxicity caused by the drug ]]>doxorubicin]]> . However, while it has shown promise in animal studies, when studied in people vitamin E has persistently failed to prove effective for this purpose. ]]>204-207]]>
Vitamin E is sometimes recommended for ]]>osteoarthritis]]> . However, a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 136 people with osteoarthritis of the knee failed to find any benefit in terms of symptom control or slowing disease progression. ]]>164]]> A previous 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 77 individuals with osteoarthritis also failed to find benefit. ]]>138]]>
A 4-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 1,193 people with ]]>macular degeneration]]> failed to find vitamin E alone helpful for preventing or treating macular degeneration. ]]>165]]> Vitamin E has also so far failed to prove helpful for preventing or treating ]]>alcoholic hepatitis]]> , ]]>173]]>]]>asthma]]> , ]]>172]]>]]>congestive heart failure]]> , ]]>80]]>]]>fibrocystic breast disease]]> , ]]>70]]> or ]]>Parkinson's disease]]> . ]]>71-73]]>
In a very large study involving over 29,000 male smokers, researchers failed to find benefit of alpha-tocopherol (50 IU/day), ]]>beta-carotene]]> (20 mg/day), or the two taken together for the ]]>prevention of type 2 diabetes]]> over 5-8 year period. ]]>214]]>
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Vitamin E?
The results of observational]]> trials have been mixed, but on balance, they suggest that high intake of vitamin E and other antioxidants is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer and many other forms of cancer, including bladder, stomach, mouth, throat, laryngeal, liver, and prostate. ]]>83-95,144,145,166,218]]> Based on these and other results, researchers developed the hypothesis that antioxidants can help ]]>prevent cancer]]> and set in motion very large, long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies to verify it. Unfortunately, these studies generally failed to find vitamin E helpful for the prevention of cancer in people at high risk for it. ]]>14,146,158,159,189-190]]>
The one positive note came in a double-blind trial of 29,133 smokers. ]]>25]]> In this study, 50 mg of synthetic vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol) daily for 5 to 8 years caused a 32% reduction in the incidence of prostate cancer and a 41% drop in prostate cancer deaths. ]]>81]]>
Surprisingly, results were seen soon after the beginning of supplementation. This was unexpected because prostate cancer grows very slowly. A cancer that shows up today actually started to develop many years ago. The fact that vitamin E almost immediately lowered the incidence of prostate cancer suggests that it somehow blocks the step at which a hidden prostate cancer makes the leap to being detectable.
Nonetheless, the negative results regarding most other types of cancer have made scientists hesitant to place too much hope in these findings. It has been suggested that alpha-tocopherol alone is less effective than the multiple forms of tocopherol that occur in nature; in particular, it has been suggested that gamma-tocopherol rather than alpha-tocopherol might be the most relevant form of vitamin E for cancer prevention. ]]>211]]> Interestingly, use of alpha-tocopherol supplements may deplete both gamma- and delta-tocopherol levels, potentially producing a negative effect. ]]>174]]> However, gamma-tocopherol has not yet been tested in meaningful controlled trials, and it is quite possible that were one to be performed, the results would prove as disappointing as those for other forms of vitamin E.
In addition, under certain circumstances, vitamin E may have a pro-oxidant effect—the reverse of what is desired. ]]>203]]>
Most but not all observational studies have found associations between high intake of vitamin E and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease ( ]]>heart disease]]> and ]]>strokes]]> ). ]]>104-107,150,151]]> However, as we’ve explained, observational studies by themselves cannot be relied upon to identify useful treatments. Double-blind studies, which provide much more convincing evidence of effectiveness, have generally failed to find vitamin E supplements effective.
The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial found that natural vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) at a dose of 400 IU daily did not reduce the number of heart attacks, strokes, or deaths from heart disease any more than placebo. ]]>96]]> The trial followed more than 9,000 men and women who had existing heart disease or were at high risk for it.
Negative results were seen in numerous other large trials, as well. ]]>99-102,129,152,153,157,175,194-195]]>
When the results of these studies began to come in, some antioxidant proponents suggested that the people enrolled in these trials already had disease too advanced for vitamin E to help. However, a subsequent large trial found vitamin E ineffective for slowing the progression of heart disease in healthy people as well. ]]>155]]> Moreover, in an extremely large placebo-controlled trial involving over 14,000 US male physicians at low risk for heart disease, 400 IU of vitamin E every other day failed to lower the risk of major cardiovascular events or mortality over a period of 8 years. ]]>220]]> On the contrary, vitamin E was associated with a slightly increased risk of stroke.
As with preventing cancer, critics have suggested that the form of vitamin E used in these studies (alpha-tocopherol) was not the best choice, and that gamma-tocopherol might be more helpful. ]]>140-142,154]]> Gamma-tocopherol is present in the diet much more abundantly than alpha-tocopherol, and it could be that the studies showing benefits with dietary vitamin E actually tracked the influence of gamma-tocopherol. However, an observational study specifically looking to see if gamma-tocopherol levels were associated with risk of heart attack found no relationship between the two. ]]>143]]> Nonetheless, intervention trials of gamma-tocopherol are currently underway.
In addition, as noted above, under certain circumstances, vitamin E may have a pro-oxidant effect, and this could explain the negative outcomes. ]]>203]]>
Interestingly, one study found that vitamin E might help prevent serious cardiovascular events in patients with ]]>diabetes]]> who also have a particular genetic marker known as “Hp 2.” ]]>215]]> It has been hypothesized that people with the Hp 2 gene have an inadequate endogenous (“built-in”) antioxidant defense system, and for this reason, they might be particularly benefited by taking antioxidant supplements such as vitamin E. However, this concept still remains highly preliminary.
]]>Preeclampsia]]> is a dangerous complication of pregnancy that involves high blood pressure, swelling of the whole body, and improper kidney function. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 283 women at increased risk for preeclampsia found that supplementation with vitamin E (400 IU daily of natural vitamin E) and vitamin C (1,000 mg daily) significantly reduced the chances of developing this disease. ]]>112]]>
While this research is promising, larger studies are necessary to confirm whether vitamins E and C will actually work. The authors of this study point out that studies of similar size found benefits with other treatments, such as aspirin, that later proved to be ineffective when large-scale studies were performed. Furthermore, keep in mind that we don't know whether such high dosages of these vitamins are absolutely safe for pregnant women.
Between 1987 and 1998, at least five double-blind studies were published that indicated vitamin E was beneficial in treating ]]>tardive dyskinesia]]> (TD). ]]>113,114]]> Although most of these studies were small and lasted only 4 to 12 weeks, one 36-week study enrolled 40 individuals. ]]>115]]> Three small double-blind studies reported that vitamin E was not helpful. ]]>116,117]]> Nonetheless, a statistical analysis of the double-blind studies done before 1999 found good evidence that vitamin E was more effective than placebo. ]]>118]]> Most studies found that vitamin E worked best for TD of more recent onset. ]]>119]]>
However, in 1999, the picture on vitamin E changed with the publication of one more study—the largest and longest to date. ]]>120]]> This double-blind study included 107 participants from nine different research sites who took 1,600 IU of vitamin E or placebo daily for at least 1 year. In contrast to most of the previous studies, this trial did not find vitamin E effective in decreasing TD symptoms.
Why the discrepancy between this study and the earlier ones? The researchers, some of whom had worked on the earlier, positive studies of vitamin E, were at pains to develop an answer. ]]>121,122]]> They proposed a number of possible explanations. One was that the earlier studies were too small or too short to be accurate, and that vitamin E really didn't help at all. Another was the most complicated: that vitamin E might help only a subgroup of people who have TD—those with milder TD symptoms of more recent onset—and that fewer of these people had participated in the latest study. They also pointed to changes in schizophrenia treatment since the last study was done, including the growing use of antipsychotic medications that do not cause TD.
The bottom line: The effectiveness of vitamin E for a given individual is simply not known. Given the lack of other good treatments for TD and the general safety of the vitamin, it may be worth discussing with your physician.
Seniors often do not respond adequately to vaccinations. One double-blind study suggests that vitamin E may be able to strengthen the immune response to vaccines. In this trial, 88 people over the age of 65 were given either placebo or vitamin E at 60 IU, 200 IU, or 800 IU dl-alpha-tocopherol daily. ]]>123]]> The researchers then gave all participants immunizations against hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria, and pneumonia, and looked at subjects' immune response to these vaccinations. The researchers also used a skin test that evaluates the overall strength of the immune response.
The results were promising. Vitamin E at 200 mg per day and, to a lesser extent, at 800 mg per day significantly increased the strength of the immune response.
However, it is not clear whether vitamin E has a general ]]>“immune support”]]> effect. One study in seniors found that use of vitamin E did not help prevent ]]>colds]]> and other respiratory infections, and, in fact, seemed to slightly increase the severity of infections that did occur. ]]>156]]> In a similar-sized double-blind study of long-term care residents, use of vitamin E at 200 IU daily failed to reduce incidence or number of days of respiratory infection or antibiotic use. ]]>176]]> The researchers managed to find some evidence of benefit by breaking down the respiratory infections by type, but such after-the-fact analysis is questionable from a statistical perspective. Subsequently, the same researchers repeated the study with a larger group and did find a reduction in frequency of colds. ]]>191]]> Another researcher found evidence that vitamin E can have either a harmful or a helpful effect depending on who takes it (the exact differences being as yet undefined). ]]>200]]>
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 341 people with Alzheimer's disease received either 2,000 IU daily of vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol), the antioxidant drug selegiline, or placebo. Those given vitamin E took nearly 200 days longer to reach a severe state of the disease than the placebo group. (Selegiline was even more effective.)
However, negative results were seen in a study of 769 people at high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease based on early symptoms. ]]>192]]> Participants were given either 2,000 IU of vitamin E, the drug donepezil, or placebo for 3 years. Neither treatment reduced the percentage of people who went on to develop Alzheimer's disease.
Warning: Such high dosages of vitamin E should not be taken except under a doctor's supervision. (See ]]>Safety Issues]]> .)
Dysmenorrhea (Menstrual Pain)
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 100 young women complaining of significant ]]>menstrual pain]]> were given either 500 IU of vitamin E or placebo for 5 days. ]]>139]]> Treatment began 2 days before and continued for 3 days after the expected onset of menstruation. While both groups showed significant improvement in pain over the 2 months of the study (presumably due to the power of placebo), pain reduction was greater in the treatment group as compared to the placebo group.
Benefits were also seen in an Iranian, 4-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 278 adolescent girls. ]]>196]]> The dose used in this study was 200 IU twice daily.
Low Sperm Count/Infertility
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 110 men whose sperm showed subnormal activity, treatment with 100 IU of vitamin E daily resulted in improved sperm activity and higher actual ]]>fertility]]> (measured in pregnancies). ]]>125]]> However, a smaller double-blind trial found no benefit. ]]>126 ]]>
The adult safe upper intake level (UL) for vitamin E is set at 1,000 mg daily. 128]]> The equivalent amounts are 1,500 IU of natural vitamin E and 1,100 IU of synthetic vitamin E. (For technical reasons, the conversion factor is a bit different than in the daily intake recommendations above.) For pregnant women under 19 years of age, the upper limit is 800 mg.
Vitamin E has a blood-thinning effect that could lead to problems in certain situations. In one study of 28,519 men, vitamin E supplementation at the low dose of about 50 IU synthetic vitamin E per day caused an increase in fatal hemorrhagic strokes, the kind of stroke caused by bleeding. ]]>129]]> (However, it reduced the risk of a more common type of stroke, ]]>130]]> and the two effects essentially canceled out.) Based on its blood-thinning effects, there are concerns that vitamin E could cause problems if it is combined with medications that also thin the blood, such as warfarin (Coumadin), heparin, clopidogrel (Plavix), ticlopidine (Ticlid), pentoxifylline (Trental), and aspirin. Theoretically, the net result could be to thin the blood too much, causing bleeding problems. A study that evaluated vitamin E plus aspirin did in fact find an additive effect. ]]>131]]> In contrast, the results of a study on vitamin E and Coumadin found no evidence of interaction, but it would still not be advisable to combine these treatments except under a physician's supervision. ]]>132]]>
There is also at least a remote possibility that vitamin E could also interact with supplements that possess a mild blood-thinning effect, such as ]]>garlic]]> , ]]>policosanol]]> , and ]]>ginkgo]]> . Individuals with bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia, and those about to undergo surgery or labor and delivery should also approach vitamin E with caution.
In addition, vitamin E might at least temporarily enhance the body's sensitivity to its own insulin in individuals with adult-onset diabetes. ]]>133,134]]> This could lead to a risk of blood sugar levels falling too low. In addition, one study found that use of vitamin E can raise blood pressure in people with diabetes. ]]>197]]>
The bottom Line: If you have diabetes, do not take high-dose vitamin E without first consulting your physician.
When all major vitamin E studies are statistically combined through a process called “meta-analysis,” some evidence appears suggesting that long-term usage of vitamin E at high doses might increase overall death rate, for reasons that are unclear. ]]>177,210]]>
The results of one large study involving 29,000 males indicate that vitamin E supplementation may increase risk of tuberculosis in heavy smokers. Curiously, however, this was only true in those participants who also consumed high levels of vitamin C (at least 90 mg/d) in their diet. Consuming high levels of vitamin C without supplemental vitamin E actually led to a reduction in tuberculosis risk. ]]>217]]>
Finally, considerable controversy exists regarding whether it is safe or appropriate to combine vitamin E with standard chemotherapy drugs. ]]>135,178]]> The reasoning behind this concern is that some chemotherapy drugs may work in part by creating free radicals that destroy cancer cells. Antioxidants like vitamin E might interfere with this beneficial effect. However, there is no good evidence that antioxidants actually interfere with chemotherapy drugs, growing evidence that they do not, and some evidence of potential benefit under certain circumstances. ]]>136,167,179,198]]> Nonetheless, in view of the high stakes involved, we strongly recommend that you do not take any supplements while undergoing cancer chemotherapy, except on the advice of a physician.
Interactions You Should Know About
- Seek medical advice before taking vitamin E if you are taking blood thinning drugs, such as:
- Vitamin E may help protect you from lung-related side effects if you are taking ]]>amiodarone]]> .
- Vitamin E may help reduce side effects if you are taking ]]>phenothiazine drugs]]> .
- Seek medical advice before taking vitamin E if you are taking chemotherapy drugs.
- High-dose vitamin E might cause your blood sugar levels to fall too low, requiring an adjustment in medication dosage, if you are taking ]]>oral hypoglycemic medications]]> .
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2. Traber MG, Elsner A, Brigelius-Flohe R. Synthetic as compared with natural vitamin E is preferentially excreted as alpha-CEHC in human urine: studies using deuterated alpha-tocopheryl acetates. FEBS Lett. 1998;437:145-148.
5. Christen S, Woodall AA, Shigenaga MK, et al. Gamma-tocopherol traps mutagenic electrophiles such as NO(X) and complements alpha-tocopherol: physiological implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997;94:3217-3222.
7. Burton GW, Traber MG, Acuff RV, et al. Human plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol concentrations in response to supplementation with deuterated natural and synthetic vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:669-684.
12. Zheng W, Sellers TA, Doyle TJ, et al. Retinol, antioxidant vitamins, and cancers of the upper digestive tract in a prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:955-960.
14. Albanes D, Heinonen OP, Huttunen JK, et al. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(suppl):1427S-1430S.
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22. Malila N, Virtamo J, Virtanen M, et al. The effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on colorectal adenomas in middle-aged male smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8:489-493.
23. Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, et al. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:1145-1149.
25. Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:440-446.
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34. Fuchs J, Kern H. Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by d-alpha-tocopherol and l-ascorbic acid: a clinical study using solar simulated radiation. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998;25:1006-1012.
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37. Trevithick JR, Shum DT, Redae S, et al. Reduction of sunburn damage to skin by topical application of vitamin E acetate following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation: effect of delaying application or of reducing concentration of vitamin E acetate applied. Scanning Microsc. 1993;7:1269-1281.
38. Trevithick JR, Xiong H, Lee S, et al. Topical tocopherol acetate reduces post-UVB, sunburn-associated erythema, edema, and skin sensitivity in hairless mice. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992;296:575-582.
39. van Rooij J, Schwartzenberg SGWS, Mulder PGH, et al. Oral vitamins C and E as additional treatment in patients with acute anterior uveitis: a randomised double masked study in 145 patients. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83:1277-1282.
40. Manzella D, Barbieri M, Ragno E, et al. Chronic administration of pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improves the cardiac autonomic nervous system in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:1052-1057.
44. Edmonds SE, Winyard PG, Guo R, et al. Putative analgesic activity of repeated oral doses of vitamin E in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a prospective placebo controlled double blind trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 1997;56:649-655.
47. Kahler W, Kuklinski B, Ruhlmann C, et al. Diabetes mellitus—a free radical-associated disease. Results of adjuvant antioxidant supplementation [in German; English abstract]. Z Gesamte Inn Med. 1993;48:223-232.
48. Bursell SE, Clermont AC, Aiello LP, et al. High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:1245-1251.
50. Rolf C, Cooper TG, Yeung CH, et al. Antioxidant treatment of patients with asthenozoospermia or moderate oligoasthenozoospermia with high-dose vitamin C and vitamin E: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Hum Reprod. 1999;14:1028-1033.
53. Teikari JM, Rautalahti M, Haukka J, et al. Incidence of cataract operations in Finnish male smokers unaffected by alpha tocopherol or beta carotene supplements. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52:468-472.
57. Paolisso G, D'Amore A, Giugliano D, et al. Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57:650-656.
64. Craig BW. The effects of vitamin E supplementation on the oxidative and mechanical stresses associated with an acute bout of resistance training. Presented at: The Integrative Biology of Exercise; September 20-23, 2000; Portland, ME.
67. Abrams B, Duncan D, Hertz-Picciotto I. A prospective study of dietary intake and acquired immune deficiency syndrome in HIV-seropositive homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993;6:949-958.
75. Tornwall ME, Virtamo J, Haukka JK, et al. The effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on symptoms and progression of intermittent claudication in a controlled trial. Atherosclerosis. 1999;147:193-197.
76. Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:440-446.
77. Albanes D, Heinonen OP, Huttunen JK, et al. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(suppl):S1427-S1430.
79. Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:440-446.
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Last reviewed April 2009 by EBSCO CAM Medical Review Board]]>
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