Vitamins & Minerals: Focus on Chromium
Chromium is a trace mineral that works with insulin to help regulate and maintain normal blood glucose (sugar) levels. Chromium can be found naturally in foods and also comes in a variety of supplemental forms: chromium picolinate, chromium polynicotinate, chromium chloride, and high-chromium brewer’s yeast.
|Age Group||]]>Adequate Intake (micrograms/dL)]]>|
|Pregnancy less than or equal to 18||29||n/a|
|Lactation less than or equal to 18||44||n/a|
Chromium is often removed from grains when they are refined. Because of this, eating a diet high in processed carbohydrates may predispose some individuals to a chromium deficiency. As chromium works closely with insulin, a deficiency of this mineral can produce symptoms similar to those seen in people with ]]>diabetes]]> and can worsen glycemic control in people with pre-existing diabetes.
Clinical symptoms of a chromium deficiency include the following:
- Impaired glucose tolerance (high blood glucose levels after eating)
- Elevated blood cholesterol levels
- Elevated blood triglyceride levels
It is difficult to consume toxic amounts of chromium from dietary sources alone, but harmful levels of the mineral can be ingested in the form of supplements. A daily intake of over 1,200 micrograms has been reported to cause kidney, liver, and bone marrow damage—though the risk of chromium toxicity is believed to be higher in people who already have liver or kidney disease.
One form of supplemental chromium, chromium picolinate, appears to alter levels of neurotransmitters when taken in high doses—a possible concern for people with ]]>depression]]> , ]]>bipolar disease]]> , or ]]>schizophrenia]]> . Some doctors have proposed that high chromium picolinate intake is associated with DNA damage within the brain, though no research to date has confirmed this possibility.
Major Food Sources
There is little data regarding the chromium levels in foods. In general, whole grain breads and cereals, brewer’s yeast, meats, egg yolks, and cheeses are all good sources. Chromium is also found in drinking water, especially hard water. Cooking acidic foods (tomatoes, citrus fruits, etc.) in stainless steel cookware causes chromium to leech into the food. Fruits, vegetables, seafood, highly processed foods, and drinking water are generally poor sources of this mineral.
|Shredded wheat cereal||2 ounces||65|
|Peas, cooked||1 cup||60|
|Cheese, American||1 ounce||48|
|Liver, braised||3 ounces||42|
|Egg, cooked||1 large||26|
Populations at Risk for Chromium Deficiency
Chromium deficiencies are seen in malnourished children and people receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) not supplemented with chromium. The condition can also be seen in elderly people with type 2 diabetes.
A growing body of research suggests that chromium supplementation may be useful for patients with diabetes. One study found that diabetics who took 1,000 micrograms of chromium daily experienced significant decreases in their blood sugar levels. A number of other studies have shown improved glycemic control with even lower levels of chromium supplementation. The research also suggests that chromium could be helpful in treating ]]>gestational diabetes]]> and diabetes caused by corticosteroid treatment.
A number of studies show that insulin resistance and glucose intolerance increase the risk of heart disease. Chromium supplementation may help by normalizing blood sugar and improving insulin responsiveness. Some preliminary research has even suggested that people with a higher chromium intake have a lower risk of ]]>heart attack]]> .
Studies have revealed mixed results for chromium’s effectiveness as a weight loss aid. One study found that patients taking 200 or 400 micrograms of chromium picolinate daily for 72 days lost significantly more weight than those who were taking a placebo (inactive) pill. However, a repeat study done by the same researchers failed to duplicate this finding. The most current hypothesis is that chromium has a weak weight-loss effect in obese individuals.
- Always talk to your doctor before taking a chromium supplement.
- Make sure the amount of chromium in your multivitamin does not exceed 100 micrograms.
- Try to eat two serving of chromium-rich foods every day
Tips for Increasing Your Dietary Chromium Intake
- Have a bowl of shredded wheat or whole grain cereal for breakfast or as a snack
- Add a hard boiled egg or some shredded American cheese to your salad
- Try the following recipe for Greek Peas and Artichokes with Dill:
Over medium heat cook 8 sliced scallions, 6 chopped garlic cloves, and ¼ cup olive oil in a large pot until soft. Add 2 pounds of green peas (fresh/frozen), 1 pound of artichoke hearts (fresh/frozen), quatered, 1 cup tomato sauce, 2 cups water, and salt and pepper to taste. Chop 2 ounces of fresh dill into 1-inch lengths and add to peas and artichokes. Reduce heat and simmer, covered, for about an hour.
American Dietetic Association
Food and Nutrition Information Center
Canadian Diabetes Association
Dietitians of Canada
Balk E, Tatsioni A, Lichtenstein A, Lau J, Pittas AG. Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care. 2007 May 22. [Epub ahead of print]
Dietary supplement fact sheet: chromium. National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/chromium.asp. Accessed May 21, 2009.
Duyff RL. The American Dietetic Association’s Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. Minneapolis, MN: Chronimed Publishing; 1998.
Duyff RL. The American Dietetic Association’s Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; 2006.
Garrison R, Somer E. The Nutrition Desk Reference. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing; 1995.
Pennington J. Bowes & Church’s Food Values of Portions Commonly Used. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998.
Last reviewed May 2009 by ]]>Maria Adams, MS, MPH, RD]]>
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