Coping with ulcerative colitis is no easy thing. The chronic disease, which may affect as many as 700,000 people in the United States, causes inflammation and sores in the lining of the colon and rectum. As the inflammation worsens, the cells that line these areas die off, resulting in bleeding, infection, and diarrhea. The condition can cause:
- joint pain
- appetite loss
- weight loss
- skin lesions
- nutritional deficiencies
- stunted growth in children
The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is unclear. Many experts believe it results from an abnormality of the immune system and an inability to handle bacteria in the digestive tract.
A doctor may request a blood test, stool samples, barium enema, and colonoscopy to determine whether your symptoms are being caused by ulcerative colitis rather than another condition like Crohn's disease, diverticular disease, or cancer. Ulcerative colitis should be confirmed by biopsy (sampling) of tissue during colonoscopy.
If you're diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, it's vital to map out a treatment plan that controls and prevents attacks so that your colon can heal. Because the symptoms and effects of the disease vary, there's no single treatment that works for everyone. Treatments often focus on diet and nutrition, stress, and medication.
Diet and Nutrition
It's best to consume smaller amounts of food throughout the day and avoid raw and high-fiber foods such as:
- whole grains
Fatty and greasy foods also contribute to inflammation and pain. In general, safe foods include dairy, low-fiber grains, meats, and some raw fruits and vegetables. Sipping water throughout the day can aid in digestion and reduce inflammation.
Anxiety and nervousness can worsen symptoms. Exercise and relaxation techniques that help you manage and reduce your stress levels can be helpful. These include:
A doctor may prescribe medication to induce or maintain remission. Although several types of medications exist, each drug falls into four primary categories:
These drugs contain 5-aminosalicyclic acid (5-ASA), which helps control inflammation in the intestine. Aminosalicylates can be administered orally, through an enema, or in a suppository. They typically take four to six weeks to work. However, they may cause side effects, including:
This group of steroid drugs, including prednisone, budesonide, methylprednisolone, and hydrocortisone, reduce inflammation. They're often used for patients suffering from moderate to severe ulcerative colitis, including those who haven't responded favorably to 5-ASA drugs. Corticosteroids can be administered orally, intravenously, through an enema, or in a suppository. Side effects include:
- facial hair
- weight gain
- mood swings
- bone mass loss
- increased risk of infection
Consequently, steroids are ideally used on a short-term basis to temper a flare up of ulcerative colitis, rather than as a medication that is taken every day to control symptoms. Sometimes, when ulcerative colitis is very severe, patients end up on a daily dose of steroids to maintain a normal lifestyle.
These drugs, including azathioprine and 6-mercapto-purine (6-MP), reduce inflammation of the immune system, though they can take as long as six months to work effectively. Immunomodulators are administered orally and typically used for patients that don't respond favorably to the combination of 5-ASAs and corticosteroids. Potential side effects include:
- reduced white blood cell count
- increased risk of infection
These are a newer class of drugs used as an alternative to immunomodulators to treat people who haven't responded well to other treatments. Biologics are more complex and target specific proteins. They can be given through intravenous infusion or injections. Currently, there are four FDA-approved biologic medications to treat UC:
- adalimumab (Humira)
- golimumab (Simponi)
- infliximab (Remicade)
- vedolizumab (Entyvio)
If other forms of treatment fail, you may be a candidate for surgery. Some ulcerative colitis patients eventually have their colons removed as a result of severe bleeding and illness or increased risk of cancer. Four types of surgeries exist:
- restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis
- total abdominal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis
- total abdominal colectomy with end ileostomy
- total proctocolectomy with end ileostomy
If you've been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which may make symptoms worse. In addition, make sure to map out a strategy with your doctor and get an exam every year or two due to an increased risk of cancer. With the right approach, it's possible to cope with ulcerative colitis and live a normal lifestyle.Read more in Ulcerative Colitis Resources