A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.

It is possible to develop leukemia with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing leukemia. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.

Risk factors for leukemia include:

Environmental and Chemical Factors

People exposed to the chemical benzene, some chemotherapy drugs, or high doses of radiation are more likely to develop leukemia than those who have not had similar exposure. Rarely, cases of leukemia may result from prior treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs. Patients who have been treated with chemotherapy or who are on immunosuppressive drugs for transplants are also at increased risk for developing leukemia.

Genetic Factors

Down syndrome is considered to be a risk factor for leukemia. Other risk factors include Li-Fraumeni sybdrome, ]]>Klinefelter syndrome]]> , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia, neurofibromatosis, and Fanconi amenia. People who have an identical twin who develops leukemia are more likely to develop it themselves.

Lifestyle Factors

Smokers over age 60 are twice as likely as nonsmokers to develop acute myeloid leukemia.