Sunburn is the term for red, sometimes swollen and painful skin. It is caused by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. Sunburn can vary from mild to severe. The extent depends on skin type and amount of exposure to the sun. Sunburn is a serious risk factor for skin cancer and for sun damage.

First Degree Burn (Superficial Burn)

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Sunburn is caused by overexposure to UV rays from the sun.

Risk Factors

Factors that increase your chance of sunburn include:

  • Exposure to the sun
  • Light skin color
  • Certain medications that may increase your sensitivity to the sun, such as antibiotics, diuretics (water pills), or oral contraceptives
  • Geographical location: highest incidence in southern United States


The symptoms of sunburn vary from person to person. You may not notice redness of the skin for several hours after the burn has begun. Peak redness will take 12-24 hours.

Symptoms include:

  • Redness
  • Swelling
  • Warmth
  • Pain
  • Blisters
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Nausea and vomiting in severe cases
  • Weakness
  • Symptoms of shock, including:
    • Low blood pressure
    • Fainting
    • Extreme weakness (in rare and serious cases)


A mild sunburn does not often require a visit to the doctor. However, if you have any of the above symptoms, seek medical attention. The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. For more severe cases of sun damage, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in skin disorders. Dermatologists focus on skin issues.


Treatment will vary depending on the severity of the sunburn. The first and most important step in treatment involves getting out of the sun at the first sign of redness or tingling. Stay out of the sun until the skin is fully healed. This may take several weeks.

In addition, you can do the following:

  • Apply a cool water compress to soothe raw, hot skin.
  • Take over-the-counter anti-inflammatories.
  • Take oral or topical corticosteroids. These will help to shorten the course of pain and inflammation. Topical steroids may not relieve skin redness.
  • Take prescription antibiotics if an infection develops.
  • Be extra careful to protect skin after it peels. The skin is very sensitive after peeling.


To prevent sunburn, you must shield your skin from the sun's rays.

  • Avoid strong, direct sunlight.
  • Plan outdoor activities early or late in the day to avoid peak sunlight hours between 10 AM-4 PM.
  • Choose a sunscreen, sunblock, or special sunblock clothes with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15. It should filter out both UVA and UVB rays.
  • Apply sunscreen liberally, thoroughly, and frequently to all exposed skin. Do not forget the lips.
  • Wear protective, tightly woven clothing, as well as a broad-rimmed hat and sunglasses.

Keep in mind that water is not a good filter. You can become sunburned while swimming or snorkeling. You can also become sunburned during the winter and on cloudy or foggy days.