Sexually transmitted diseases are viruses, bacteria or parasites that are passed through sexual contact. Some STDs may not cause symptoms right away, though infected individuals can still pass on these diseases to their sexual partners.
Bacterial vaginosis is a common vaginal infection in which the balance of good and harmful in the vagina becomes unbalanced, with an increase in the amount of harmful bacteria. While any woman can get bacterial vaginosis, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention noted that it is common among pregnant women. Certain activities put a woman at risk for getting bacterial vaginosis, including having multiple sex partners, having sex without a condom, or using an intrauterine device.
A common symptom of bacterial vaginosis is abnormal vaginal discharge. The discharge may appear gray or milky white; it may also appear thin, foamy or watery. An unpleasant odor may accompany the discharge. WomensHealth.gov stated that for some women, the discharge has a fish-like odor after intercourse. Other symptoms of bacterial vaginosis include irritation, burning when urinating, and itching. For other women, they may have no symptoms.
Bacterial vaginosis is treated with an antibiotic, such as clindamycin and metronidazole. WomensHealth.gov noted that men who have female sexual partners with bacterial vaginosis do not need to receive treatment.
Bacterial vaginosis does have some complications, such as increasing a woman’s risk of contracting other sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea.
Over 100 types of human papillomavirus (HPV) exist, with more than 40 types affecting the genital region, according to the MayoClinic.com. HPV is spread though intercourse — vaginal, anal and oral. A partner can become infected even if her partner does not have any symptoms.
In about 90 percent of HPV cases, the virus clears without treatment within two years, according to the CDC. But there are strains of HPV that the immune system does not clear. The type of symptoms an infected individual has depends on the strain of HPV.