As we age, many of us have acquired brown spots or discolorations on our skin. Naturally, we look to see if there is any type of cream that will help and we try to understand what risks there are in using one. Here is where using hydroquinone becomes confusing. There are two camps. One feels that hydroquinone should be entirely banned due to cancer and other health risks. The other expresses that it is safe to use in low concentrations or under the guidance of a doctor. What should you do?
How does hydroquinone work?
Hydroquinone does not actually bleach the skin; it simply lightens it by blocking the production of melanin. Common risks are skin irritation and possible allergic responses and it is recommended to not use hydroquinone products for longer than six months.
It has been reported in South Africa to cause skin discoloring instead of lightening in a condition called exogenous ochronosis but that rarely has happened here in the U.S. However, in Britain there have been reports of ochronosis during short-term use of cosmetics containing hydroquinone as a skin brightener.
According to dermadoctor.com, the American Academy of Dermatology stated that “Hydroquinone is one of the most effective molecules for the treatment of dark discoloration over the past 40-50 years and has been used in millions of people. It is used to treat the top concerns among our patients including melasma, photo-aging, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, medically and cosmetic disfiguring dyschromias.” The AAD expressed that hydroquinone is safe and effective, is also present in various food products and there has not been malignancies reported from any of these sources in 50 years of use.
In 2006 the United States Food and Drug Administration proposed a ban of hydroquinone due to evidence that it may be carcinogenic as demonstrated in studies with rats though it has not been documented as such in humans. Currently over the counter products can contain up to 2 percent hydroquinone but 4 percent concentrations must be prescribed by a doctor. No new products containing hydroquinone can be released in the U.S. unless newly approved by the FDA.