According to the United States Library of Science, ʺchronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetic disorder in which certain immune system cells are unable to kill some types of bacteria and fungi. The disorder leads to long term (chronic) and repeated (recurrent) infections. The condition is often discovered in very early childhood. Milder forms may be diagnosed during the teen years or even in adulthood.ʺ
The CGD Association categorizes CGD as a primary immune deficiency. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development website stated ʺa primary immune disease results whenever one or more essential parts of the immune system is missing or not working properly at birth because of a genetic defect.ʺ
According to the CGD Association, the following are warning signs of primary immune deficiency (also known as primary immunodeficiency, PI or PID):
• A family history of primary immune deficiency
• Failure of an infant to gain weight or grow normally
• Eight or more new ear infections within one year
• Recurrent, deep skin or organ abscesses
• Two or more deep-seated infections such as meningitis, osteomyelitis, cellulitis, or sepsis
• Two or more serious sinus infections within one year
• Need for intravenous antibiotics to clear infections
• Two or more months on antibiotics with little effect
• Persistent thrush in mouth or elsewhere on skin, after 12 months old
• Two or more pneumonias within one year
Also, the CGD Association stated, ʺCGD is one of the over 100 primary immune deficiencies. Unlike many PIDs, CGD patients have the ability to fight viral, but not bacterial or fungal infections. The cell can engulf the germ but the cell lacks the oxygen burst to kill the germ.ʺ
Those diagnosed with CGD may also be prone to other diseases like granulomas of the stomach, osteomyelitis, urinary tract infections, abscesses, pneumonia, anemia, colitis, enlarged lymph nodes, etc.
Patients with CGD see an immunologist regularly.
A blood test called nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT) can confirm a CGD diagnosis. The blood test is inexpensive and very simple.