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Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CDG) Overview

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According to the United States Library of Science, ʺchronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetic disorder in which certain immune system cells are unable to kill some types of bacteria and fungi. The disorder leads to long term (chronic) and repeated (recurrent) infections. The condition is often discovered in very early childhood. Milder forms may be diagnosed during the teen years or even in adulthood.ʺ

The CGD Association categorizes CGD as a primary immune deficiency. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development website stated ʺa primary immune disease results whenever one or more essential parts of the immune system is missing or not working properly at birth because of a genetic defect.ʺ

According to the CGD Association, the following are warning signs of primary immune deficiency (also known as primary immunodeficiency, PI or PID):

• A family history of primary immune deficiency
• Failure of an infant to gain weight or grow normally
• Eight or more new ear infections within one year
• Recurrent, deep skin or organ abscesses
• Two or more deep-seated infections such as meningitis, osteomyelitis, cellulitis, or sepsis
• Two or more serious sinus infections within one year
• Need for intravenous antibiotics to clear infections
• Two or more months on antibiotics with little effect
• Persistent thrush in mouth or elsewhere on skin, after 12 months old
• Two or more pneumonias within one year

Also, the CGD Association stated, ʺCGD is one of the over 100 primary immune deficiencies. Unlike many PIDs, CGD patients have the ability to fight viral, but not bacterial or fungal infections. The cell can engulf the germ but the cell lacks the oxygen burst to kill the germ.ʺ

Those diagnosed with CGD may also be prone to other diseases like granulomas of the stomach, osteomyelitis, urinary tract infections, abscesses, pneumonia, anemia, colitis, enlarged lymph nodes, etc.

Patients with CGD see an immunologist regularly.

A blood test called nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT) can confirm a CGD diagnosis. The blood test is inexpensive and very simple. Also, the most accurate way to diagnose CGD is with a diagnostic test that uses dihydrorhodamine (DHR).

Antibiotics are used to treat and prevent infections in people with CGD. Other treatments for CGD revealed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine Library website included, ʺInterferon-gamma may also be helpful in reducing the number of severe infections. When abscesses form, if possible they should be treated by a surgeon. Also, the only cure for chronic granulomatous disease is a bone marrow transplant.ʺ


Chronic granulomatous disease - PubMed Health. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved December 18, 2011, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002219

Chronic granulomatous disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. Retrieved December 18, 2011, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001239.htm

What is CGD? CGD Association. Retrieved December 18, 2011, from www.cgdassociation.org

birthday, t. s. Primary Immunodeficiency: When the Body's Defenses are Missing. NICHD - The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Official Home Page. Retrieved December 18, 2011, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/primary_immuno.cfm#WhatisPrimaryImmunodeficiency

Reviewed December 19, 2011
by Michele Blacksberg RN
Edited by Jody Smith

Add a Comment1 Comments

hmm, when i was being diagnosed for SLE, this is one disease that they kept coming back to....and since i have had some question me about it.
IT does sound more like my brother but we over lapped in how we were sick.
If anyone has this do they also have other autoimmune diseases, lupus, RA, etc?? reynaulds
Be Curious thanks for any help

September 12, 2014 - 3:53pm
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We value and respect our HERWriters' experiences, but everyone is different. Many of our writers are speaking from personal experience, and what's worked for them may not work for you. Their articles are not a substitute for medical advice, although we hope you can gain knowledge from their insight.

Chronic Granulomatous Disease

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