The causes are not well understood. Researchers are investigating genetic, environmental, or other underlying mechanisms that may play a role.
Causes may include:
- Genetic defect
- Infant's position during pregnancy or delivery
- Head or neck injury
- Damage or malfunction of the nervous system, specifically the basal ganglia, which is a deep brain structure
- Inner ear or eye problems
- Deformities of the bones or muscles in the neck
- Tumors of the head or neck
- Arthritis of the neck
- Gastroesophageal reflux in infants (passage of acid from the stomach into the throat)
Use of certain medications, including:
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