Risk Factors for Kidney Stones
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
It is possible to develop kidney stones with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing kidney stones. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Specific Lifestyle Factors
- Diet rich in meat, sodium, oxalate, and tomatoes
- Reduced fluid intake
- Increased fluid loss in hot weather
- High intake of grapefruit juice
- Long periods of inactivity
- Being overweight
- ]]>Urinary tract infection]]>
- Previous kidney stone
- ]]>Crohn’s disease]]>
- ]]>Ulcerative colitis]]>
- Kidney disease
- ]]>High blood pressure]]>
- Chronic diarrhea
- Overactive parathyroid gland
- Certain cancers
- Neurologic conditions affecting the ability of the bladder to empty
- Men are 4-5 times more likely to develop calcium or uric acid stones
- Women are more likely to develop struvite stones
- Family members who have had kidney stones or gout
- Caucasians and Asians are more likely than African Americans, Native Americans, and people from Africa and the Middle East.
- Antacids containing silicates
- Anticonvulsants: ]]>topiramate]]> , ]]>felbamate]]> , ]]>zonisamide]]>
- Decongestants: ]]>guaifenesin]]> , ephedrine
- Some diuretics (such as ]]>triamterene]]> )
- Some steroids
- Thyroid medications
- Some ]]>chemotherapy]]> drugs
- Some drugs used to treat ]]>HIV]]> (such as ]]>indinavir]]> )
- Sedentary jobs
- Higher socioeconomic class
Krause’s Food, Nutrition, and Diet Therapy. 10th ed. WB Saunders; 2000.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/ .
Parmar MS: Kidney stones. Brit Med J. 2004;328:1120-1124.
Last reviewed June 2008 by ]]>Adrienne Carmack, MD]]>
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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