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Encephalitis

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Encephalitis Guide

Cary Cook BSN RN

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Encephalitis

By sandhya reddy
 
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While there are viral infections that spread through cold sores, mumps, measles, and chicken pox that cause encephalitis (which is inflammation and infection of the brain), there are also Arbo viruses that spread through the mosquito's bite and tick bites that cause encephalitis. Different living conditions lead to this condition such as immunity, weather, seasons, etc. Encephalitis caused by these viruses range from the most mild form in which patients recover completely over time to life threatening situations where it damages the nervous system and could last for life.

1. Herpes simplex (encephalitis) is the most common form of virus in United States of America that is caused by mosquito bites and tick bites.This type of virus is caused by human to human contact where the infected person passes on the virus to others.

2. West Nile encephalitis is prevalent in Africa, Asia, Middle East and United States which is caused and spread through mosquitoes and birds.

3. Venezuelan Equine encephalitis is another kind of viruses that is caused by mosquitoes and rodents. This is mostly seen in the south Asian countries and Africa.

4. La Crosse encephalitis is more prevalent in United States, and is caused and spread through birds and mosquito bites. This form of encephalitis mostly affects adults.

5. Japanese encephalitis is mostly seen in Asian countries where mosquitoes are the common carriers. Birds and pigs are also carriers for this virus.

Symptoms of encephalitis, regardless of any type, include fever, fatigue, sore throat, headache, and vomiting. Severe cases include seizures, paralysis, memory loss, insomnia, coma and finally death. Tests for diagnosing encephalitis that is caused by mosquito or tick bites include CT, MRI of the brain, DNA studies, EEG, spinal tap and brain biopsy, among others.

Treatments include IV fluids, and medications for controlling seizures. Among all forms of encephalitis, herpes encephalitis is the most dangerous form which could cause rapid progression leading to death if treatment is not available as soon as it is diagnosed.

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