Pronounced: op-TIK nu-RI-tis
The optic nerve allows you to see by carrying images from your eye to your brain. Optic neuritis involves inflammation of the optic nerve, which may cause sudden decrease or loss of vision. Optic neuritis is a serious condition that requires immediate care from your doctor.
The Optic Nerve
The cause of optic neuritis is often unknown. Known causes of the diseases include:
- An attack on the optic nerve by a viral infection or by the body's own immune system
- Exposure to toxic substances such as lead
The following factors increase your chance of developing optic neuritis. If you have any of these risk factors, tell your doctor:
- A personal or family history of multiple sclerosis
- A previous history of optic neuritis
Symptoms of optic neuritis include:
- A sudden decrease in vision. Patients may describe this as blurred, dark, or dim vision, or as loss of vision in the center of, part of, or all of the visual field. In mild cases, it may look like “the lights are turned down.”
- Abnormal color vision (dull and faded colors)
- Pain in or around the eye, often made worse by movement of the eye.
Eye pain will often go away, usually within a few days. Vision problems will improve in over 90% of patients, though some may be left with blurred, dark, dim, or distorted vision. Vision improvement usually takes place over several weeks or months.
Optic neuritis may be difficult to diagnose, as your eye probably looks perfectly normal. Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and will perform a physical examination. He or she should refer you to an ophthalmologist. Tests will include:
- Tests of color vision, side vision, visual acuity, and the reaction of the pupil to light
- A dilated eye examination to view the back of the eye (retina) with an instrument called an ophthalmoscope
- Magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) may also be performed to look for certain medical conditions
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
- Steroid medications to reduce inflammation of the optic nerve
- Certain other medications depending on other medical diagnoses
American Academy of Opthalmology
North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
The University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center
Canadian Association of Optometrists
Canadian Ophthalmological Society
Agostoni E, Frigerio R, Protti A. Controversies in optic neuritis pain diagnosis. Neurol Sci . 2005;26(Suppl 2):s75-s78.
Bianchi Marzoli S, Martinelli V. Optic neuritis: differential diagnosis. Neurol Sci . 2001;22(Suppl 2):S52-S54.
Boomer JA, Siatkowski RM. Optic neuritis in adults and children. Semin Ophthalmol . 2003;18:174-180.
Chan JW. Optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm . 2002;10:161-186.
Hickman SJ, Dalton CM, Miller DH, Plant GT. Management of acute optic neuritis. Lancet . 2002;360:1953-1962.
Last reviewed November 2008 by
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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